Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Alfalfa Cultivation

Use of nitrogen fertilizer in cultivation of alfalfa

Alfalfa is a specialty of Yangxin County, Shandong Province. It is famous for its strong stems, luxuriant leaves, high yield, and rich nutrient composition. Alfalfa is a multi-year herbaceous plant of the family Leguminosae. It has developed root system, strong adaptability, resistance to salt and alkali, solid sand, and improved soil properties. Harvest 2 or 3 times a year. Yangxin alfalfa contained up to 18% of plant protein, and other nutrients such as fat, vitamins, lutein, etc. were far higher than those of other species in the same species. Alfalfa is the ideal livestock poultry feed.

Nitrogen is one of the nutrients necessary for normal growth of alfalfa, and it is also an important part of the constituent proteins. In addition, the formation of nucleic acids and chloroplasts is inseparable from nitrogen, so nitrogen has an important influence on the growth, development, yield and quality of alfalfa. . Although 80% of the air is nitrogen, gramineous grasses cannot be used directly, and chemical nitrogen fertilizers are often required to meet their normal growth needs. Rhizobium has the ability of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, that is, Rhizobium can form root nodules after invading roots from root hairs. Bacteria in root nodules can convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia nitrogen under the action of nitrogenase, and thus have the ability of nitrogen fixation. Nodules (ie, effective root nodules) can continuously provide nitrogen nutrition to plants. Nitrogen supplied by legumes to legumes does not pollute the environment and does not require long-distance transportation.

In general, nitrogen obtained through symbiotic nitrogen fixation can basically meet the need for normal growth of earthworms. Therefore, there is a misunderstanding regarding the use of nitrogen fertilizer in the production of earthworms. I believe that it is not necessary to add nitrogen fertilizer during the growth of earthworms. Nitrogen fertilizer will cause the reduction of root nodule nitrogen fixation capacity, resulting in the occurrence of cropland disease, eventually leading to decreased yield and poor quality of alfalfa. Therefore, the use of nitrogen fertilizer was neglected when planting earthworms in many places.

There are two ways to supply nitrogen for alfalfa. In addition to relying on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nitrogen can also be absorbed from the soil through roots. The biological nitrogen fixation of alfalfa depends on the number of effective nodules and on the age of the plants and the nitrogen status of the soil. When the nitrogen content of the soil is high, the nitrogen absorbed through the root can basically meet the needs of the plant, and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation is weakened, and the number of root nodules will be greatly reduced. Therefore, in the soil with high fertility, adding nitrogen fertilizer will not only improve the growth of alfalfa, but also reduce the number of root nodules and nitrogen fixation, even reduce the number of alfalfa plants, shorten the useful life, and stimulate the invasion of alfalfa grass and weeds. .

Since nodules need to provide carbohydrates to the aboveground part of the nitrogen, the photosynthesis in the shoots is weak during the seedling stage and after castration, and no sufficient assimilation products can be provided for root nodules. Therefore, the nitrogen fixation capacity of the aphid is reduced and this cannot be satisfied. The need for nitrogen in the growth stage requires the use of a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer to promote the growth of the aboveground leaves and enhance photosynthesis to meet the needs of the plant. It is generally believed that the appropriate amount of nitrogen applied after the first cutting can increase the yield of alfalfa. Applying nitrogen fertilizer at the early stage of alfalfa growth can also increase the yield of alfalfa.

It can be seen that the supply of nitrogen in the growth process of alfalfa can not completely rely on biological nitrogen fixation. It must be based on the nutritional requirements of alfalfa, combined with the results of soil nutrient determination, the growth stage of alfalfa and environmental conditions, in order to formulate a reasonable nitrogen fertilizer application plan. Maximize the biological nitrogen fixation efficiency of alfalfa, finally achieve the goal of improving the alfalfa growth and realizing the high yield and quality of alfalfa.

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