Fertilization Technology Balanced Fertilization
According to the industry standards of the Ministry of Agriculture, balanced fertilization is a scientific fertilization technique that can rationally supply and regulate various nutrients necessary for plants to enable them to balance the needs of plants.
Non-pollution vegetable fertilization elements
I. What nutrients are needed for vegetable crops - essential elements
The nutrient components of plants---fertilizer nutrients - N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu,
Second, the number of nutrients required for vegetable crops - absorption characteristics
1. The common characteristics of vegetables requiring fertilizer: Vegetables are highly intensively cultivated crops. Despite the variety of vegetables and varieties, the growth and development characteristics and the product and the organs are different, but compared with food crops, no matter how much fertilizer is needed. Or there are considerable differences in the demand status of different nutrients, but the commonalities are as follows:
(1) The nutrient requirement is large. The average value of nutrients absorbed by various vegetables is compared with that of wheat. The average amount of nitrogen absorbed by vegetables is 4.4 times higher than that of wheat. Phosphorus uptake is 0.2 times higher, potassium uptake is 1.9 times higher, calcium uptake is 4.3 times higher, and magnesium uptake is 0.5 times higher.
(2) In addition to the retained nutrients and more vegetables, all the vegetables are harvested when the seeds are not completed, and their fresh vegetative organs or reproductive organs are used as commodities for human consumption. Therefore, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients contained in the plants during the harvest period were significantly higher than that of the field crops.
(3) There are special needs for certain nutrients. Although different types of vegetables have large differences in the absorption of nutrients, they still have certain special requirements compared to other crops, such as:
1 vegetables like nitric acid nitrogen; 2 large demand for potassium and calcium; 3 vegetables sensitive to boron and molybdenum.
These nutritional characteristics are an important basis for rational fertilization of vegetables.
2, the characteristics of vegetable crops to absorb nutrients
The proportion of roots and crowns is small, and the burden on the root system is heavy
Shallow root distribution, small absorption range require large nutrient supply
Fast growth, high absorption intensity
Low soil temperature, weak absorption capacity
Third, the soil can provide how much nutrients - soil fertility
Soil Testing: Standard Methods, Rapid Methods
The status of soil nutrient supply in China: Most of the soil is deficient in nitrogen, 50% of soil is deficient in phosphorus, 30-40 of soil is deficient in potassium, and trace elements such as zinc, iron, boron and manganese are lacking in large areas. The middle elements calcium, magnesium and sulfur are certain crops. On the lack of serious, greenhouse vegetables are particularly prominent.
Fourth, what nutrients to use - fertilizer types
1. Organic fertilizer: farmyard fertilizer, commodity fertilizer
(1) The role of organic fertilizers in vegetable production
.A. Provide various mineral nutrients and organic nutrients needed for crops. During the decomposition process of organic fertilizers, the nutrients contained in the organic fertilizers are released continuously for the growth and development of the crops.
B. Increase soil organic matter content and increase soil fertility.
Improves soil water retention and fertility; facilitates the formation of soil aggregates and improves soil physical properties; promotes soil microbial activity through the provision of organic carbon sources; various active enzymes secreted by the digestive tract of animals and enzymes produced by microorganisms , These substances can greatly increase the activity of enzymes in soil after entering the soil; increase the availability of insoluble phosphorus and trace elements in soil
C. Increase crop yields and improve the quality of agricultural products.
#8226; Reduce Nitrate in Vegetables
#8226; Nitrite content
#8226; Increase Vitamin C Content
In short, applying more organic fertilizer can improve soil activity and biological reproduction
The ability to improve the soil's adsorption, buffering, and stress resistance.
(2) Development Trend of Organic Fertilizer
A. The use of traditional organic fertilizers tends to shrink
Reasons: Low nutrient content; slow fertilizer effect; production and use of organic fertilizer requires more manpower, material resources, etc.
B. Commercialization, converting organic fertilizers into commodity organic fertilizers
Features: The price is cheaper than chemical fertilizer (equivalent nutrient); the application is more convenient; organic fertilizer has advantages in fertilizing soil
Attention problem: harmless treatment, maturity
2. Inorganic fertilizers: single fertilizer, compound fertilizer, organic-inorganic compound fertilizer
(1) Main nitrogen fertilizers
Ammonium nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonia water
Nitrate nitrogen fertilizer: potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate
Ammonium Ammonium Nitrogen: Urea
(2) Compound fertilizer refers to fertilizer containing three elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium or any two of them in chemical fertilizer composition.
Nutrient identification (
A. The percentage content of N, P2O and K2O total nutrients shall be indicated in terms of percentage of N-P2O5-K2O. For example: 20-10-10 is expressed as containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O. Composting.
B. Binary Compound Fertilizer. A â€œ0â€ indicates a missing nutrient element. For example: 18-46-0, which is a nitrogen-phosphorus binary compound fertilizer. Another example is: 13-0-44 is a nitrogen-potassium binary. Compound fertilizers.
C. If the addition of medium or trace elements is not indicated in the packaging container and quality certificate.
The compound fertilizer contains micronutrients in the position behind K2O, for example: 12-12-12 -2(Zn), which is a ternary compound fertilizer containing zinc.
(3) The advantages of compound fertilizers: comprehensive nutrient content, high content, good physical properties, ease of application, minor accessory components, no adverse effects on the soil, diversity in proportion, favorable for targeted selection and application, cost reduction, and cost reduction .
Disadvantages of compound fertilizers: A. Many crops have different characteristics for nutrient requirements in each growth stage. The fertility and nutrient release status of soils in different regions are also very different. Therefore, it is difficult to use dual-component fertilizers with relatively fixed nutrient ratios. Meet the requirements of various types of soil and various crops. B. The laws governing the movement of various soil nutrients in the soil are different. Therefore, it is difficult for fertilizers to fully meet the special requirements for nutrients at a certain period of crops in terms of the location of nutrients and the release rate.
(4) Special Compound Fertilizers are special compound fertilizers formulated for specific soils and crops with different compositions and proportions, such as China's existing compound compound fertilizers for vegetables and zinc-added fertilizers (applicable to certain crops on zinc-deficient soils).
Controlled slow-release fertilizers: The release time and release of nutrients are in agreement with the requirements of the crop's fertilizer requirements to meet crop nutrient absorption, minimize fertilizer losses, and increase fertilizer utilization. It is one of the current development directions of chemical fertilizers, and it is also a multidisciplinary cross cutting edge technology in which the modern chemical engineering production engineering and plant nutrient regulation technologies are closely combined.
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