I. Urgency of the development of the bio-pesticides industry Agricultural production has caused huge losses every year due to pests and weeds. In order to ensure stable and high yields, people have long used chemical pesticides to control crop pests and weeds. According to statistics, the ratio of chemical control areas in China's total control area from 1985 to 2000 was as high as 95%. Due to the long-term, large-scale and repeated use of chemical pesticides, it brings pollution to soil, water, and atmosphere; the increase of pesticide residues in agricultural and sideline products also directly harms human health and survival; at the same time, chemical pesticides kill pests at the same time. It also killed natural enemies and other beneficial organisms, destroyed the ecological balance, and caused more pests. In this way, the amount and frequency of pesticide application have to be increased, resulting in a vicious cycle of application of chemical pesticides.
In recent years, with the improvement of human economic and cultural levels, people have put forward higher requirements for food safety and environmental safety, and biological pesticides have thus been rapidly developed. Bio-pesticides are bio-pesticides that directly use active substances produced by organisms or living organisms as pesticides, and artificially synthesized pesticides with the same structure as natural compounds. They include microbial pesticides, plant-derived pesticides, genetically modified organisms, and natural enemies. Bio-pesticides have the following advantages: 1 The pest control effect is good, but it is non-toxic to humans and animals, does not pollute the environment, and has no residue; 2 has strong specificity against diseases and pests, does not kill natural enemies and beneficial organisms that damage insects, and can protect ecological balance; 3 production Raw materials and active ingredients are natural products, and its return to nature can ensure sustainable development. 4 Modern biotechnological means can be used to transform the producing bacteria and their fermentation processes to continuously improve performance and improve quality; 5 kinds of factors and components play a role. Pests and germs are difficult to produce drug resistance. In the process of rapid development of biological pesticides, some new international biotechnology companies, such as Mycogen and Ecogen, have emerged. Some of the worldâ€™s largest chemical pesticides and biotechnology companies, such as DuPont and Monsanto of the United States, Germanyâ€™s Bayer, Switzerland's Ciba Gage, Denmark's Novo, Japan's Sumitomo, and others have also invested heavily in the development of biological pesticides.
China has also included the development of biological pesticides and green food in Chinaâ€™s Agenda 21. In China, 3,000 to 4,000 pesticide accidents occur each year, and the compensation for pesticide pollution exceeds 100 million yuan. With the implementation of the Environmental Protection Law, the negative impact of pesticides on society and the environment will increase. In addition, China's current control of pesticide imports is mainly based on import quotas. After joining the WTO, all non-tariff protection measures will be abolished, which will certainly provide foreign pesticides with a long drive to straighten out people. Therefore, it is imminent to create and develop new bio-pesticides with China's independent intellectual property rights, high efficiency, safety and practical value, and accelerate the development of our country's bio-pesticides industry.
Second, China's bio-pesticide industry development overview At present China's large-scale production of bio-pesticides are mainly four species, namely Bacillus thuringiensis, Jinggangmycin, avermectin and gibberellin.
Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used and most productive microbial insecticide in the world. Since China's first commercial formulation, "Plasmodium sp.", was introduced in 1965, its annual output has stabilized at 1,000 tons to 2,000 tons for a long time. Since the 1990s, it has grown rapidly. More than 20 companies have registered more than 30 products and the annual output has reached 30,000 tons.
Jinggangmycin is the dominant pesticide in the control of rice sheath blight. It has been enduring for more than 20 years since its inception in the 1970s. At present, there are more than 30 factories in China, with an annual output of nearly 4,000 tons (100% of the original drug), accounting for more than 90% of the rice sheath blight control market, and can be used for about 50 million hectares of land. The control targets have also been from rice. Expanded to crops such as wheat and corn. Due to the successful cultivation of high-yield strains and high-temperature, short-cycle fermentation processes, production costs have been greatly reduced. Jinggangmycin has become the safest, most effective, and cheaper species in China's pesticides.
Abamectin is an ultra-efficient insecticidal biopesticide with only 3000-7500 mg/ha. It is mainly used for the control of pests such as acarids, leafminers, pears, liriomyza, diamondback moth and cabbage caterpillars. At present, China has 62 registered products and more than 100 manufacturing enterprises.
Gibberellin is currently the most widely used and most effective source of microbial growth hormone and has the effect of promoting seed germination, plant growth, and early flowering. It is significant for rice, vegetables, peanuts, broad beans, grapes, citrus, cotton, etc. Increase production. At present, China has 7 registered products and more than 10 manufacturing enterprises.
In addition, the main biopesticides that China is currently researching and developing or are in the early stage of industrialization are Liuyangmycin, Nanchangmycin, Staphylococcin, Zhongshengmycin, Antimycin, Ningnanmycin, and Cecumide; Fungal insecticides such as Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces; bacterial insecticides such as Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus lentus; viral insecticides such as nuclear polyhedrosis virus, granules Viruses; plant-derived pesticides, such as azadirachtin, are under development.
III. Problems and Countermeasures in the Development of China's Biological Pesticide Industry (I) Main Issues
1. Insufficient investment in scientific research and difficult development of new products
Resolution No. 21 of the â€œWorld Conference on Environment and Developmentâ€ in 1992 required that â€œthe sales and use of chemical pesticides be controlled globally. By the year 2000, the output of biological pesticides accounted for 60%.â€ However, 8 years have passed and Chinaâ€™s biological pesticides have passed. The market share of only 3% -4%. The reason is mainly due to the fact that the varieties of biological pesticides available to farmers are very limited, and the commonly used varieties are only three or four, far from meeting the needs. The deep-seated reason is the serious shortage of scientific research funds.
Mainly in two aspects: First, the absolute lack of funds. Foreign research and development of a new pesticide scientific research needs 5000-80 million US dollars. The average annual funding for research projects on microbiological pesticides in China is less than 50,000 yuan. It takes about 10 years to obtain three permits from project approval. In the calculation of wage input in 10 years, the investment for each project is only RMB 600,000-700,000; second, the limited funds cannot be used for scientific research. Taking the microbial pesticides research group of the Institute of Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences as an example, this group has 6 researchers and 30% reduction in business expenses plus various subsidies. Each person needs the annual expenditure of the research group about 10,000 yuan. Therefore, assuming a scientific research project, its funding is not enough for headcount expenses. This forced scientific research personnel to strive for more projects, and many projects, scientific research capabilities can not keep up, will inevitably lead to scientific research results difficult to perfect, industrialization is very difficult.
2. Blind production of corporate production, unfair competition in the market, blindly launched production, resulting in a lot of waste of resources. Such as Bt manufacturers, only a few in 1990, developed to more than 100 in 1995, up to now can still insist on production of no more than 20. Another example is avermectin. In 1994, there were only 3-5 manufacturers, and it has grown to more than 100. It is estimated that it will take less than 5 years and there will be only a few manufacturers that produce avermectin.
3. Weak application of propaganda, difficulty in changing concepts Although biological pesticides have obvious advantages over chemical pesticides, there are fewer popular articles and programs on biological pesticides introduced by news media such as radio, newspapers, and television. Many people do not even know about it. There are biological pesticides. In particular, many farmers are deeply influenced by traditional farming concepts and are accustomed to using chemical pesticides, which are often abused and used excessively. For example, in the past, farmers used peasants to spray their appearance in order to prevent and control diseases and insects. Some farmers even sprayed their appearance, and even some peasants tried to save time by simply using cheap and highly toxic chemical pesticides. This ensures that the vegetables are free from insect pests. Chemical pesticides directly enter the interior of the vegetables through the roots and are difficult to be washed out, thus causing greater harm to the human body.
1. Scientific research: increase investment, highlight key points According to the actual situation in China, most foreign research and development funds for biological pesticides come from government funding methods. Related departments should increase investment in biopesticide research institutes and establish a national focus on biological pesticides. Open laboratories, at the same time give a tilt to the project and funding of biological pesticide research projects, in order to facilitate the emergence of more varieties of biological pesticides. It is necessary to make a limited amount of fees and expenses so as to ensure that there are ample budgets for several promising key projects and strive to form several truly outstanding breakthrough results within a few years.
2. Industry: raise awareness, scale development
The 21st century is the era of biotechnology. Our country has a good foundation in this aspect. If we can catch up further, we can use the biotechnology industry to promote the 21st century economic development in China. Biopesticides are the closest to industrialization in the field of biotechnology. An important part of. Therefore, the relevant departments should take the promotion of the development of the bio-pesticides industry as a new economic growth point, as a matter of ensuring the protection of the people's personal health, protecting the environment and the ecology from destruction, and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture.
In addition, China has a number of large-scale bio-pesticides manufacturing companies, such as Hisun Group, Qianjiang Biochemicals, Deqing Baye, etc., and these enterprises should be given active support to further scale and quality. At the same time, it actively encourages more enterprises and foreign capital to come into the research and production of bio-pesticides to form a large-scale grouped enterprise that integrates production, supply, sales, research, and gold, so that the production of various bio-pesticides forms economies of scale. Strengthen its market competitiveness.
3. Application: policy guidance, standard development First, we should formulate relevant policies, establish strict standards for the use of chemical pesticides, strictly prohibit the abuse and abuse of chemical pesticides, and impose fines until legal sanctions; Second, we must strengthen publicity to make people A clearer understanding of safety and environmental safety has led to the use of biological pesticides as the conscious behavior of farmers; Third, a broad-based green food production base should be established to vigorously develop organic agriculture, pollution-free vegetables, and safe vegetable projects to make bio-pesticides The application area has been steadily expanded.
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