Comprehensive breeding techniques for breeding high-yielding dairy cows

1. Selection of breeding options to improve the quality of herds By using the national or even the elite of the world's elite bulls to breed or carry out embryo transfer techniques, so that future generations can inherit more excellent milk production genes and eliminate low-yielding individuals, so that the quality of herds can be improved. The generation has increased from one generation to the next, which has gradually increased the overall milk production level of dairy cows.
2. Rational breeding of good technical germplasm must be combined with scientific feeding and management in order to play a role, because the genetic effects of many traits are not high, but the impact of the environment is relatively large, as the saying goes: "Three minutes This is the truth. To obtain high-yield individuals and increase the milk production of the herds, the cultivation of cows is a key link.
2. yak refers to cattle from birth up to 6 months of age and is a reserve force for dairy farms. Improper feeding management at this stage will reduce its survival rate, poor growth and development, difficulty in reproduction and reproduction after growth, and poor production performance, which will affect its economic efficiency. Therefore, we must pay attention to the cultivation of yaks. The main points are as follows:
2.1.1 Colostrum feeding: Colostrum contains a lot of nutrients such as antibodies, vitamins, and minerals. It plays a very important role in strengthening the yak's physique and improving its resistance. Yak is eaten within 1-2 hours after birth. Milk, the first amount of feed in the 1-1.5 kilograms, gradually increased after the colostrum fed to 5-7 days can be changed to regular milk or mixed colostrum.
2.1.2 Supplementary feeding: With the growth of newborn yak, milk alone can not meet the nutritional needs, so it is necessary to feed feed in time. When calves are born for 1 week, they can be allowed to feed freely, with high quality hay or fine material. Wait. The concentrate feed should be made of corn flour, barley, wheat bran, bean cake, bone meal, trace elements, vitamins, etc. The crude protein content should be about 18%; after 2 weeks of age, silage, hay, etc. can be added to promote rumen. Early development, gradually increase the rumen flora early rumination.
2.1.3 Weaning: When yak is 60 days after birth, it is customary to consume a certain amount of concentrate (more than 0.5kg per day) and roughage, and when the amount of milk is close to zero, the calf can be weaned and the weak calf can Properly extend the period of breast-feeding, concentrate feed should be mainly high-quality yak, the number should be gradually increased to limit to 1.5-2 kg per day, high-quality rough material for their free-feeding, should not feed poor quality mildew feed.
2.1.4 Daily Care:
1 Nursing: After each yak feeding, wipe the mouth with a cleansing cloth to prevent the yak from pulling hair off each other and forming hair bulbs in the stomach, affecting development. Note that calves must not lick the umbilicus, nipples, etc., so as not to cause inflammation in these areas. The yak with chaos and evil spirits should be isolated or put on a cage for a period of time and then mixed in groups.
2 Dehorning and cutting off the inverted nipples: Dehorning can be carried out at about 0.5 months of age. After dehorning, the cows are more docile and less prone to combat injuries. Cut off the nipples before 2 months of age to facilitate milking in the future and prevent infectious mastitis.
3 Weighing: The calf should be weighed once a month on a fixed date, and body height, body length and chest circumference are measured at 6 months of age, and the feed is adjusted in time according to the weight gain.
4 Epidemic prevention: on time for TB and quarantine work, and inoculation of cattle to defeat the vaccine.
2.2 Feeding management of young cattle The young cattle are cows from 7 months to 30 months of age: This stage is the key to the rapid growth and breeding of breeding cattle.
2.2.1 Feeding principle: The principle of taking green and rough feeds as the main and supplementing fine materials should be followed; try to eat as much green and rough feed as possible, increase rumen volume and enhance digestion, and the crude protein content of concentrated feed should be 14%. Around, there should be enough vitamins and minerals in the feed, so that the nutrition is comprehensive, body phlegm to maintain moderate, generally 7-7.5 into phlegm, prevent excessive fat or too thin.
2.2.2 Regular measurement of body measurements and weighing: The purpose is to understand the growth and development of cattle and correct improper feeding, so that the young cattle can reach development indicators as soon as possible, and timely fertilize pregnancy, calving, saving feeding costs and early lactation.
2.2.3 Timely breeding and recording: Young cows are generally estrus at 8-12 months of age, but it is advisable to have a weight of 320 kg or more at about 16 months of age.
2.2.4 Feeding in groups: For bred cows that are pregnant, they should be bred in groups with other young cows to avoid miscarriage caused by collisions or climbs. The supply of concentrates should gradually increase to a daily level due to the need for growth and development of the pregnant cow itself and the fetus. 4-4.5 kg, silage and high quality raw materials are free to eat.
2.3 Feeding and management points for adult females The post-cow cows and young cows over 30 months old who still have no calving are called adult cows. Breeding adult cows is mainly to make them healthy and long-lived, to provide milk in large quantity and quality, and to breed more excellent offspring to create more economic benefits.
2.3.1 feeding points in different periods
2.3.1.1 Dry-milk period: In order to enable the cow to exert greater lactation capacity in the next lactation period, milking should be stopped 45-60 days before the expected date of the pregnant cow to restore body condition, accumulate nutrition, and repair damaged mammary cells. , And to meet the needs of fetal growth and development. Before the dry milk, a test should be carried out to confirm the dryness of the milk, and dry milk should be used for one-time stopping of milk. After the last milking, the antibiotics are collected in the four milk areas. The ointment is no longer closed. Milking, but then should pay attention to mastitis. The dry cows should use high-quality hay as the main diet, and be fed with proper amount of silage and fine material. The ratio of crude to coarse material is about 30:70, and crude protein is 11%-12%.
2.3.1.2 Perinatal period: Cows are referred to as perinatal during the prenatal and postpartum 15 days. Concentrates can be gradually increased every day from 15 days before birth, but the maximum amount should not exceed 1% of body weight. The proportion of fine and coarse material in the diet is 40:60, and the crude protein is 13%. The ratio of calcium and phosphorus fed before delivery should be In the 1.2-1.5:1, postpartum should be 1.8-2.2:1, within half a month after delivery should be fed a diet easy to digest, good palatability. Concentrate should be considered as appetite, lochia, breast edema and other conditions gradually increase, control the feed of bad residue, roots and other feed, so as not to cause real stomach and other internal diseases such as disease, hay is free to eat, colostrum should not squeeze Too much, 3 to 7 days before they can be squeezed, so as not to cause production defects.
2.3.1.3 Lactation:
1 Pre-lactation period: The cow is called the pre-lactating period 14 to 100 days after delivery. During this time, the cow's milk production shows a rising stage and the nutrient consumption is relatively large. The cows tend to form a nutritional negative balance and the body condition is reduced. To develop lactation capacity well, feed high-energy, high-protein feeds. The proportion of refined and roughage in the diet can be as high as 60:40, crude protein is 18%, crude fiber is not less than 15%, and buffers such as magnesium oxide or baking soda are added to balance the pH of the rumen in order to avoid acidosis and metabolism. Disorder.
2 During the mid-lactation period: During the post-natal period of 101-200 days, it is referred to as the mid-lactation period. During this time, the milk production of dairy cows gradually decreases, but the feed intake is relatively large, and the nutritional balance should be maintained in the rearing so that the milk production rate will decline slowly. The amount of concentrate feed should be reduced depending on the level of milk production. The proportion of refined coarse feed in the diet can be reduced to 50:50, crude protein is 15%, and crude fiber is not less than 17%.
3 Late lactation: This period is postpartum 201 days before dry milk. During this period, the amount of milk produced falls rapidly. In addition to lactation, the intake of nutrients is also required for the normal development of the fetus and for the recovery of the body of the cow. The ratio of refined to coarse in the diet is 40:60, crude protein is 12%, crude fiber is not less than 18%.
2.3.2 Routine management measures It is important for dairy cows to use their lactation capacity to reach high yields. Daily management is also very important. Keep feeding as much as possible on a balanced basis, including balanced supply of forages and feed, and balanced daily work schedules. Let the cows live in a comfortable environment and exert their milking power as high as possible.
1 Feeding method: It is best to use a fully-mixed diet feeding method, according to the different growth stages, the nutritional needs of the cattle, the short cut (about 2.5CM long) of roughage, fine material, silage and various auxiliary materials mixed in Together, mix well to make a full-price mixed feed containing about 45% of water. Feeding cattle in this way is not easy for picky eaters. Dry matter intake is sufficient, nutrition is balanced, and production performance can be fully utilized.
2 drinking water: adequate and clean drinking water, can make cattle increase dry matter intake, in order to make cows drink water at any time, can be installed in the barn automatic drinking fountains, sports pool with a drinking pool.
3 Exercise: Exercise plays an important role in enhancing appetite, enhancing physical fitness, improving reproductive function, and preventing hoopoe disease. It requires at least 3 hours of exercise time per day.
4 sheds hygiene: comfortable and clean pens can relax the body and mind of cows, have a good rest, so that the normal function of physiological function, is conducive to the increase of milk production, it should pay attention to housing hygiene, moisture, regular mosquito control, fly control, Disinfection and other work.
5 Prevention of hot and cold stress: The heat and cold of the climate have a certain impact on the production of dairy cows, especially during the summer heat season. Because the sweat glands of cows are underdeveloped and the body surface is poorly cooled, only rapid breathing and heat dissipation result in decreased appetite and milk production. The amount is reduced. Therefore, attention should be paid to the design of the housing in summer, ventilation and heat dissipation, and winter heating measures.
6 Timely breeding: Dairy cows must produce high-yield crops in good time. Dairy cows have a lactation peak at the end of each birth period. Long-term emptying results in a gradual reduction in yield, resulting in no maximum economic benefit and a reasonable lifespan for dairy cows. It is better to breed within 50-90 days and the interval between the tires is straight within 400 days.
7 The right milking method: With high potential for milk production and reasonable feeding, it is also necessary to have the right milking method to increase milk production. The use of machine milking is less subjective to cows, and is increasingly becoming a trend in the dairy industry. Feeders with fewer years of age need to improve milking techniques and master the right methods to produce high yields. The grip press method and the slide-down method cooperate: first wash and massage the breast with warm water at about 50°C. When the breast is full, dry it with a towel. Discard the first and second milk first and then squeeze it into the milk bucket and squeeze it twice. In the milk area, it is necessary to pay attention to using the slide-down method to clear the remaining milk in the breast, so that it is not easy to get mastitis.
3, perfect veterinary health epidemic prevention:
For dairy cows to have high yields, they must have healthy physiques. This requires starting from veterinary health and epidemic prevention to reduce the impact of diseases on dairy cows. In the production and management of dairy cows, there should be a relatively complete veterinary health and epidemic prevention system. Diseases should be immunized every year: The pens should be sterilized on a regular basis. Early diagnosis and treatment of common diseases should be made to ensure the health of the cows before they can increase milk production.
Through the above technical measures, a high-yield dairy cow group can be cultivated, so that the cow breeder can obtain a more ideal economic benefit.

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The effects are as follows:

(1) Moisturizing effect 
Moisturizing is the most important effect of Sodium Hyaluronate in cosmetics products. It can be hydrated shell in skin surface and make the corneum hydration and softening. Compared with other humectants, Sodium Hyaluronate is less effected by the environment as it has the highest hygroscopic capacity in a relatively low humidity (e.g., in a dry winter), but has the lowest hygroscopic capacity in a relatively high humidity (e.g., in a damp summer). This unique property of Sodium Hyaluronate makes the skin adapt to different seasons.
(2) Skin nutrition effect
Sodium Hyaluronate is the inherent biological materials of skin. The exogenous Sodium Hyaluronate can complement the endogenous Sodium Hyaluronate. Low molecular Sodium Hyaluronate can penetrate into dermis directly to improve the nutrient supply.
(3) Skin repair effect
There is some evidence that topically applied Sodium Hyaluronate can reduce skin irritation from various causes. During clinical trials it was also shown that this ingredient is effective in promoting healing and fighting inflammatory conditions of the skin. Sodium Hyaluronate serves as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, helping to protect the skin from the aging effects of excessive sunlight exposure.
(4) Emollient and Film-forming
Sodium Hyaluronate is high polymer with high lubrication and film-forming. Sodium Hyaluronate contained in cosmetics creates protective film on the surface of skin, which retains moisture, and at the same time prevents moisture in the skin from evaporation, so that improves freshness of the skin.  
(5) Thickening
Sodium Hyaluronate solution have high viscosity, and 1% solution is gelatinous. It can be added to cosmetics to improve the thickening and stability.

 Cosmetic Grade Hyaluronic Acid Powder

Specification

Test Items

Standard

Appearance

White powder

Hyaluronic Acid

≥95%

Molecular weight

800Kda-2000Kda

PH

6.5-8.0

Solution transmittance

≥99.0%

Loss on drying

<10%

Protein

≤0.05%

Dynamie viscosity

Measuned value

Heavy metal

<20ppm

Bacterial counts

<100cfu/g

Mold and Yeast

<10cfu/g

Staphylococcus aureus

Can not be checkout

Chlorop seu domonas

Can not be checkout

Shelf Life

Two Years

Conclusion

The results meet the USP standard

 

Cosmetic Grade Hyaluronic Acid Powder

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