Film mulching cultivation is a modern agricultural production technology introduced from abroad in the late 1970s. It is characterized by the use of transparent plastic film to seal the suitable farmland from the ground, resulting in a different farmland soil environment than the open field cultivation. Water storage and drought prevention, keeping the soil loose, to a certain extent, inhibiting the growth of weeds, pressing alkali, and promoting the development of crop roots, thereby promoting the increase of production, improving quality and improving economic benefits. Membrane mechanized covering technology is to flatten a single plastic film with a thickness of 0.005-0.015 mm on a mulched or unseeded ridge surface on a cultivated land with a film mulching machine. Cover the soil on both sides and cover it tightly.
First, the advantages of mechanical filming Compared with manual filming, the film covering mechanization technology has many advantages, which are summarized as follows: Good work quality. Relying on the performance of the machine and the correct use of the operation to achieve the quality requirements of the agronomic work on the flattening, the sealing is strict, the fixing is firm. The work efficiency is high. Under normal circumstances, the man-made film mulching function can increase the ergonomics by 3 to 5 times, the animal traction can increase by 5 to 8 times, the small tractor can drive 5 to 15 times, and the large and medium tractors can increase the capacity by 20 ~ 50 times, or even more. If a combined operation process is adopted, the efficiency of driving with a small tractor can be increased by 20 to 30 times, and that driven by a large and medium-sized tractor can be increased by 80 to 100 times. It is possible to work on a windy day. The film mulching machine can generally operate under five-level wind conditions and maintain stable work quality, which is especially suitable for operations in areas with dry and windy conditions in early spring. Save the mulch. Mechanical filming can make the film evenly stressed and fully stretched, so it can save the film. According to the measurement, if a micro film of 0.008 mm thick is used, it can save 6 kg per hectare; when the film is covered with 0.015 mm, the coverage is 70% to 80%, and 12 to 22 kg per hectare can be saved. Low operating costs. From the laminating machine with a single laminating operation, the laminating machine driven by a large and medium-sized tractor, the operating cost is 4 to 18 yuan lower than that of the film. Promote increase in production and income. It has been determined that the film-muld cotton generally produces an average of 225-300 kg of lint per hectare compared to open-surface cotton.
Second, the film cover machine and its operation
(1) Types of film-covering machine 1. Simple film-laying machine has three basic working parts of mechanical filming (filming, film-forming and sealing), that is, film-rolling device, laminating wheel and crucible Shovel (or curved disc), plus the shovel or curved disc that opens the membrane trench, the traction device, and the frame and the components are connected and fixed in a certain relevant position. It is the simplest structure film mulching machine. The whole machine weighs about 30 kilograms. It is easy to use and is towed by human or animal power. It has a wide application range. 2. On the basis of the simple laminating machine, the reinforced laminating machine appropriately strengthens the working parts and correspondingly increases the strength and rigidity of the frame to adapt to different soil conditions and windy days, and improves the work quality and speed. For example, the stretching film controls the longitudinal pulling force and the wind-proof laminating roller, the working part for the soil-buried film, the film winding device and the adjusting device of the laminating wheel. 3. As a laminating machine, it has a plough or curved disc for soil stacking and shaping work parts, as well as a mechanical filming complete set. The operation of the small and medium-sized tractors is paved with a film, and the operation of large and medium-sized tractors. Two mulch films can be completed in two slabs at a time. The job is to build the soil on the land that has been ploughed, and then cover the mulch. 4. Rotary tillage (laying) laminating machine is generally composed of a fixed rotary tiller and a laminating machine, driven by a tractor with a power output shaft. One or two ridges can be completed in one time with the medium-sized tractor, and two or three ridges for the large tractor. The operation is to first rot the ploughed land, so that the soil is loose and evenly divided, and the farmyard manure and soil previously scattered on the ground are mixed and stirred evenly, and then smashed, shaped and filmed. 5. Seeding and laminating machine It consists of a planting and filming device, which is driven by animal power and driven by a tractor. The work is to sow (sow or sow) on the cultivated land and then lay the film. Due to the sowing and filming, the operation efficiency is higher, which is conducive to the fight for agricultural time and soil conservation. 6. Film-laying Planter It has a film-laying complete device and a film-hole hole-hole drilling device and a seed hole-covering device on the film. The small tractor drives a film to spread two lines, and the large and medium-sized tractors can be used to spread 2 to 4 rows of 4 to 8 rows. The operation is to lay the film on the cultivated land, then punch the hole on the film, and start the seed hole on the side of the cover film and the film.
(2) The choice of film mulching machine Because of the geographical environment, agronomic requirements and different crops covered by plastic film mulching, it is necessary to proceed from the actual situation and select the applicable model according to local conditions. The following factors should be considered in the selection: 1. Soil moisture, agronomic requirements and weather conditions. Generally speaking, in areas with drought, windy and no irrigation conditions, flat membranes should be used to ensure the protection. Where the soil is in good condition or has irrigation conditions, the ridges and ridges are used for filming, and the soil is heated as soon as possible. 2. Agronomic requirements According to the requirements of agronomy for the first broadcast or the first paving and post-laying process and the segmentation or continuous operation, it is decided to select the model of single laminating operation or the combination of soil processing, sowing, fertilizing and spraying herbicides. model. 3. The scale of operation and the size of the field are determined according to the conditions of the operating plot and the scale of production and operation. Large, medium or small simple and light models are selected. 4. The preferred machine is selected according to the maturity of the model and the test identification to suit the situation of the region and the specific requirements, and is required to conform to the local planting width and other habits.
(III) Technical Specifications for Mechanical Film Lamination Operation A certain type of plastic film covering machine must be used in accordance with the corresponding operational technical specifications. Only in this way can we achieve and obtain better working results and benefits.
1. Mechanical filming requirements for land (1) Mechanical filming should be carried out as far as possible in farmland where crops are concentrated and where the land is long. (2) To select farmland with good soil moisture, the base fertilizer should be applied before filming. (3) Before the film is laid, the farmland soil should be prepared for processing. The loose soil layer should be larger than 10 cm. The soil should be loose and evenly divided, the ground should be flat, no debris and other debris. (4) For mulching and ridge laying, when using a single laminating machine, it is necessary to start up or ridge. (5) The farmland where the mechanical filming is to be carried out (or arranged) for the passage of the machine after entering the ground and after the operation is completed.
2. Mechanical filming requirements for the film (1) The film should be a single roll and supported by a mandrel (tube). (2) The width of the film should be consistent with the agronomic requirements, and should generally be the width of the cover bed plus 20 to 30 cm. (3) The film roll should be cylindrical, the winding is tight and even, the film inside the roll should not be broken, damaged and wrinkled, and the material or waste should not be entrained. The outer diameter of the film roll should generally be 15-20 cm. The film roll should be neatly arranged on the left and right sides of the mandrel, and the external string should not be larger than 2 cm. (4) The film roll core should be a solid and rigid straight pipe. It should not be broken in the film roll. The two ends should be neat and tidy. The outward extension of the film roll side end should not exceed 3 cm.
3. Preparation before mechanical filming (1) The mulch film, fertilizer, and herbicide should be prepared as needed and have a certain amount of spare. It is necessary to check whether the quality of these agricultural materials meets the requirements of agronomic and specific machines. (2) Seeds should be prepared according to the amount of work and the amount of seeding, and have a certain amount of spare capacity. Seed treatment should be done according to the agronomic requirements, and the germination rate test should be carried out. (3) Prepare the film covering machine to check whether the working parts and devices are fully equipped, whether there are structural defects, whether the moving parts are flexible and reliable, and whether the whole machine is in a normal state. (4) For the units that are matched with the tractor, prepare suitable tractors and oils in normal condition. (5) Operators and auxiliary personnel should be trained in the basic knowledge of mechanical filming and machine operation and adjustment. (6) Adjust the working condition of the film covering machine according to the agronomic requirements and instructions for use, and then test in the field to ensure the use. (7) Prepare the machine for adjustment, inspection tools, and replacement parts.
4. Mechanical filming operation technology and precautions (1) When starting the operation, the machine stops at the ground, first install the film roll or other materials such as seeds, fertilizers, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, etc. The end is taken out from the film roll, bypassing the working device such as the laminating roller, and the sides of the film are pressed under the laminating wheel, the end of the film and the side are sealed with the soil, and then the operation is started. At the beginning of each trip, the ground film should be buried in the ground. (2) In the operation, proceed according to the working speed specified in the machine instruction manual. Do not flicker and slow, and the machine should go straight. When the human and animal forces are towed, the walking should be synchronized, and the animals should be managed by a special person. (3) In the operation, it is necessary to master the line break of the machine so that the width of the work and the groove spacing (ç•¦, ridge spacing) are the same. When two or more mulch films or a single mulch machine are used for interlacing operations, a rower can be added. (4) During the operation, the operator and auxiliary personnel should pay attention to the quality of the work and the working condition of the machine at any time, and stop the problem if it is found. After a certain period of operation, the machine should be shut down to check the consumption of film, seeds, fertilizer and liquid medicine, and replenish it in time. (5) When working on a windy day, the auxiliary personnel can use the iron shovel to cover the pressed membrane soil on the bed surface (ç•¦, ridge surface) in time, and cover a horizontal strip of soil at a certain distance. (6) Safe operation to prevent personal accidents; 1 It is absolutely not allowed to adjust or eliminate faults while the machine is working, nor to allow people to get on and off the machine. 2 When inspecting, the tractor should cut off the power transmission or stop, and the livestock should be taken by a special person. When inspecting the ground or the open space, the suspended machine or the raised condition should fall on the ground. 3 Before the start of the formation, when the end of the film is buried at the head and the side of the film is pressed under the laminating wheel, the whole machine or the laminating wheel or the covering member (disc or shovel) should be lifted to prevent the sudden loss of control. The drop hurts the operator. 4 When working in windy days, the operator and auxiliary personnel should bring the goggles, and pay attention to observe and coordinate the operation to prevent accidental injury.
Label: film machine
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