First, deal with less ploughing fields
1. To avoid potato cultivation with little or no ploughing, it is advisable to use paddy soil with convenient irrigation, loose soil, PH value of 5.5-6, and water and fertilization in sandy loam fields. It is particularly suitable for the cultivation of sandy loamy soils with good conditions in winter. plant. Drought- and water-short fields, shallow thin fields, heavy-grained fields, low-grass fields, mountain pits, cold-waterlogged fields, ro Each field should be planted in separate compartments. The size of the compartment and the depth of the row of irrigation channels between the compartments should be suitable. It is necessary to ensure that the rain does not impinge on water and the management does not step on the surface of the surface, and the loose soil is covered in the trenches. In the late harvest paddy fields, first open the ring field ditch, width 30cm, depth 25cm, and then the plots, compartment width 160cm, leaving a deep groove at the side of each compartment, groove width 30cm, depth 25cm as drainage ditch: Another - while leaving a shallow groove, groove width 30cm, deep 7chi for work. After the gully has been crushed, it is evenly shovelled on both sides of the rice pile and on the rice pile, and the surface of the girder is slightly arched to prevent waterlogging.
Second, seed processing
1. Variety choice The selection of good varieties is an important part of the potato to seize high yield. Due to the special requirements of potato growth on the environment, the city is located in the south, and the temperature is higher in the late spring, summer and early autumn. It is not appropriate to breed seed potatoes in ecological conditions. For a long time, the winter potato varieties have been adjusted by relying on the north. Similar to conventional cultivation methods, it is necessary to select a variety of plants with a growth period of 90 to 110 days, strong disease resistance, strong growth potential, stable traits, high quality and high yield, and marketable varieties.
2, seed potato selection and cuttings The best selection of potato tuber shaped potato, in line with the characteristics of the varieties, smooth and soft potato skin, skin color fresh seed potatoes for the species, banned frozen, rotten, disease, and injuring potato chips for the species. In the environment where no less rice is used for cultivation and cultivation, it is better to choose more than 30 grams of robust whole potatoes as a seed, which can prevent incision disease transmission, increase the viability and drought resistance, and achieve mountain seedlings, grow neatly, and produce high yields and stable yields. Seed should be cut into pieces. Prepare two cutting knives before cutting. Use 75% alcohol or 0.5% potassium permanganate solution to disinfect and use. When cutting, the potatoes must be cut to the buds. It is not possible to bring only the flesh near the eyes but to leave the rest of the potatoes. It is even better not to dig the shoots into small pieces or small cones. The weight of each bud should be about 40 grams, and keep l ~ 2 strong bud eyes. Less than 50 grams of potato block is not cut into pieces; 60 ~ such as grams of Shun top cut a knife, divided into two pieces: 100 to 120 grams of the first cut off the tail one-third, and then cut along the top bud vertical three, After more than 130 grams, it shall be cut longitudinally and then divided into four pieces.
3, seed potato disinfection Seed block after cutting with 0.2% carbendazim or chlorothalonil liquid, or 0.1 ~ 0.2% potassium permanganate soaking l0 ~ 15 minutes, and then smear disinfection incision with ash. The whole potato seed should be appropriately increased in concentration and soaking time. Store in cool, scattered light after disinfection, and germination after drying.
4, seed potato germination potato seed potato perishable caused by lack of seedlings. Seed germination before planting can not only eliminate rotten potatoes, reduce field disease rate or lack of seedling broken bar, but also can promote early germination, improve seedling rate, and increase yield. The germination method is: The first ten to fifteen days are described. The tubers of cut and wound healing or the whole potato are layered and placed on a wet sand or moist loose soil bed. Each layer is 60cm in width and the length is as needed. And set. Put a layer of potato, spread a layer of 1-2cm thick wet sand or fine soil, then put the second layer, generally put 3 to 4 layers, cover 20cm thick straw, and maintain the optimum temperature of about 20 degrees and often wet status. When the shoot length is about lcm, remove the plant.
5, sowing the best planting time in the city from mid-October to early December. 4 rows per plant were planted with a spacing of 40 cm and a spacing of 30 cm. Seedlings were planted with 4500â€“4600 plants per acre. When the seeds are planted, the seeds of the potatoes grow upward or laterally, and they are pressed with seeds so that the seed potatoes can fully contact with the uncultivated soil on the no-tillage field, so that the seedlings can grow. After fertilizing and planting, 1,000 kilograms of farmyard manure with mixed soil and 70 kilograms of compound fertilizer (including N15%, PeOsl5%, K2015%) were used as base fertilizer, and they were uniformly applied at a distance of 4â€“5 om from seed potato. Avoid direct contact with seed potatoes and no longer fertilize during growth.
6. Cover grass immediately after fertilization with straw. The amount of straw is 750 kg of dry straw. Straw and car are placed vertically. Straw should be covered neatly, with a uniform thickness, so that the car is opaque and the thickness is generally about 80m. If the straw is too thick, it will not only slow down. Moreover, the stem base is slender and weak; the straw is too thin, and it is easy to leak light to form green sweet potato, which reduces the quality; if the straw is uneven in thickness, there will be cases of uneven seedlings. After covering the grass, the grass water that was planted was poured to make the straw completely wet. Furrow irrigation can also be used. The depth of water is not more than three-thirds of the height of the car. After one side of the tank is poured with a scoop, the ditch water is left to dry naturally. Special attention must be paid to not filling the water. The water can exceed the car surface to prevent straw from drifting or car surface stains. water.
Third, field management
3.1 Water Management The city has less rainfall in winter, and it is prone to dryness and drought. After sowing, we must keep the soil moist to ensure that the seedlings are neat, strong, and normal. If the growth process happens to be clear and rainless for a long time, we must timely infiltrate and ditch the water to infiltrate and moisten. In the flowering and budding stage, plant growth is plentiful. The formation and enlargement of tuber is the period with the largest amount of water. When drought does not occur, it should be timely irrigated. It is better to use furrow irrigation, and the depth is half of the height of the cabin, letting it penetrate and moist. At the late stage of growth, ventilation is required and water is not needed. Due to the soft rot of the grass layer, the moisturizing ability is strong and the semi-humid state can be maintained. However, in the rainy weather, the surface temperature of the car is high and it is difficult to dry. Pay attention to clearing the ditch and reduce the humidity in the field. Avoid dead plants, tuber rot and tubers containing water too high, lower quality, difficult to store.
3.2 Diseases and Insect Pests Prevention Common diseases of potato include late blight, viral disease, bacterial wilt and soft rot. Late blight is mainly caused by high rainfall, high humidity, and before and after flowering. Pay attention to early prevention with 1:1:100 Bordeaux fluid. Spray once every 10 to 14 days. Spray about 2-3 times; The control effect. Bacterial wilt is currently not ideal for control of pesticides. The pests of potato mainly include aphids, ladybugs, cockroaches, cockroaches, etc., and can be controlled by means of medicaments or killing. In addition, mice like to make nests under the straw winter, pay attention to the prevention of rodent damage.
Fourth, the harvest When the potato plants stop growing, most of the stems and leaves turn yellowish green to yellow, and when the base leaves fall off, you can choose sunny weather harvest. Potatoes can be picked up by turning up the shoots and straw from the ground and harvested at the time of harvesting. A few potato chips that grow in shallow soil or crevices can be picked up by digging them with a short rod. After potato harvesting, the potato shoots and rice straw set off in the rice paddy fields were immediately reconstituted and flattened to prepare for no-tillage and post-cast rice.
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