Cultivation Techniques of Medicinal Forest of Taxus chinensis

1. The choice of afforestation sites: slopes in the lower part of the slope, slope foot, Caogou, Shanwan slopes less than 35 degrees, soil ph value of 4.5-7.0, high fertility wetlands well drained can be used as afforestation land. Artificial young forest land with a canopy density of less than 0.4 can also be used for afforestation. The survival rate of shoots in spring and autumn is 85% or more.
2. Site preparation: strip or burrowing. The size of the hole is 40cmx40cmx30cm (length x width x height). Different land conditions can be combined with soil preparation according to the fertility of the soil.
3. Planting density: 1100/mu. Plant spacing 60x400cm (Yokoyama x Shunshan). In afforestation in artificial young forests, the density should be determined according to the actual conditions of closure of young forests, and the principle is to plant them in vacant land with good lighting conditions outside the young tree crowns.
4. Afforestation time: Spring 2-4 months, autumn 9-11 months.
5. Management: Till 2-3 times a year after afforestation. 5-6 and August-September plucking twice, July knife strokes. After the afforestation, from May the next year, it will be combined with Fertility Topdressing. From the fourth year after afforestation, raw materials can be harvested each year by pruning branches or leaves, or the whole plant can be excavated (including roots) for paclitaxel extraction. For greenery, the shape needs to be trimmed.
Taxus, scientific name Taxus mairei, Taxaceae, taxus. Evergreen trees, leaves spirally arranged, arranged in two rows, bar-shaped, slightly curved, nearly sickle shape, length 2 cm -4.5 cm, width 3 mm - 5 mm. The margin is usually not reflexed, the upper midrib is uplifted and there are two yellow-green stomatal bands below. The color of the lower midrib is different from that of the stomatal band. There are partial or sporadic horny processes on the midrib, and the seeds are usually larger and 6 mm long. - 8 mm, oval or obovate, slightly flat. In April, the seeds matured in October. Taxus chinensis China's unique tree species, produced in the usually born 1000 meters above sea level -1200 meters than the shade of the wet valley, stream, scattered distribution. Taxus sinensis was born in subtropical tree species, and was born in a warm climate, abundant rainfall, high humidity and acidic soil. It is resistant to negative, grows slowly, the base can sprout, and the base of Taxus stipules is maintained by sticks in spring and autumn. The rate is over 85%. Taxus is usually grown by sowing or cutting. The seed has a dormancy characteristic, and the autumn seeding should be sowed after the ripening and sowing, or the spring sowing after the low temperature and wet sand is stored. Nursery should be shaded properly to keep the soil moist. Taxus yunnanensis is slow to emerge, and it is sometimes sprouted in the second year after spring sowing. Because of its slow growth, the planting is only about 10 years later. When the seedlings are shaded, they grow in a hidden environment. They can be planted with evergreen broad-leaved trees. Potted plants in the northern greenhouse can be used for bonsai soil and peat soil for potted soil. Winter temperatures should be above 5 degrees. The cutting time is suitable for early summer. The cuttings are twigs. The base can be quickly leached with 500 ml/kg naphthalene acetic acid solution. After cutting, the cuttings are inserted into the water and the cuttings are closely connected with the soil. Watering should be carried out in time to maintain the soil. It is often in a wet state, and it is also timely to establish shade cultivation techniques to cover the shade of yew.

Taxus: also known as yew, yew. It is a rare and rare anti-cancer plant that is recognized in the world. It is one of the old tree species left over from the Quaternary glacier. It has grown nearly 2.5 million years on Earth. It is reported that there are only about 25 million yew of wild yew in the world. Long biological evolution and genetic inheritance have given this species a unique internal structure. Taxol (TAXOL) and taxol are among the extracts of this plant. The State Forestry Administration has made explicit instructions on the current "Taxus chinensis Project": "The Taxus chinensis is a first-class tree species in China, which has both good ecological benefits and extremely high economic value. The state supports vigorous efforts in the appropriate scope. To build yew forests, all sectors of society should be encouraged and encouraged to participate in afforestation and afforestation in various forms such as contracting, leasing, auction, and shareholding cooperation." The current development target of the yew industry in this base is: the world’s first resource reserves and the world’s first seedling production. Therefore, the "yew" project is not only an urgent project to save lives, but also a great cause for the benefit of mankind. Although China's yew resources account for more than half of the world's other countries, it is still far from the world's demand for paclitaxel. Since the United States Food and Drug Administration (FAD) approved paclitaxel in 1992 for the treatment of advanced cancer drugs, the excessive deforestation of wild yew resources in China has been aggravated, and the resources of wild yew have been severely damaged. In addition, many biological characteristics of Taxus yunnanensis also limit the development of natural communities. According to statistics, the annual incidence of cancer in the world is more than 10 million. If 0.006-0.06% of paclitaxel is extracted, 700-1000 tons of yew bark will be consumed annually. Even if all the bark of the world's yew is harvested, it can only maintain short-term needs. And the method for synthesizing or chemically synthesizing paclitaxel is still in the laboratory stage. Therefore, it is extremely imminent to artificially expand the resources of yew and establish a timber material base for the yew medical raw materials. Currently, several methods of propagation of yew seedlings 1. Preservation of Taxus chinensis resources and rapid propagation of seedlings are the basis for solving the construction of paclitaxel timber forest. A large area of ​​constructing yew plantation is the key to solve the paclitaxel raw materials. . When yew seeds are used to breed seedlings, they must be interested in the storage of seeds, and they must be mixed with sand or temperature-controlled treatments. This has a good effect on sprouting and breaking dormancy after winter. Before sowing, it is necessary to inoculate seed coat, soak in warm water, and administer hormones. After the emergence of shading is the key to nursery. It is possible to prevent seedlings from burning at a high temperature to keep them moist and have a light transmittance of 40%. The emergence rate of Taxus cuspidata and Taxus chinensis var. Mairei can reach 70---80%, and the seedling temperature is required to be higher than 15 degrees. The dynamic growth condition of seedling seedlings is that the plant height and stem diameter of the seedlings grow slowly in the first two years of emergence, and the plant height generally grows about 10 cm per year, and the growth is accelerated after one year of transplanting. The annual increase from 3 to 5 years can reach 20---30CM. 2. Tissue culture Taxus chinensis Tissue culture utilizes the pluripotency and cloning of plant cells. The cultivation of T. chinensis plantlets was studied using the stems, needles, bark, cambium, aril, and embryos of the plant.

(1). The selection of fine yew quality cultivars, such as high quality organs of Taxus cuspidata (high paclitaxel content) as explants, inoculation medium, after callus formation, rooting, seedling bud formation, etc. A large number of tissue culture seedlings can be obtained in the laboratory. After being transplanted in the substrate, seedling cultivation, and inspection and epidemic prevention, it became a production seedling.

(2) The ratio of late to early callus formation in Taxus chinensis differs among different species and different plants of the same species. At the same time with the explant type, sampling site and collection season, lighting conditions, media types and other factors. On the induction medium, the callus was formed from Taxus cuspidata, Taxus chinensis var. Mairei and Taxus yunnanensis. However, there are differences in the formation of Taxus species and plants. Studies have shown that: a certain degree of hydrolyzed protein (CA) can promote the recovery of the damage tissue of Taxus cuspidata, Taxus chinensis var. Mairei, but the concentration of more than 0.5% is not conducive to the formation and accumulation of paclitaxel. When the concentration is more than 1%, it can promote the healing of the wound healing tissue and form a new growth point without affecting the accumulation of paclitaxel. By comparison, 2,4D is also beneficial to the formation of wounded tissue and can also increase the induction rate. The callus color in the 2 and 4D medium was fresh and bulky, and the callus induction to the yew was relatively easy. However, other media supplements, such as cell suspension culture, B5 medium, and charcoal sucrose can increase paclitaxel content. However, glucose in high-agronomic sucrose can inhibit the synthesis of paclitaxel. At the same time, galactose can significantly promote cell growth. GIBSON's research shows that both cell suspension cultures and induction of callus cell growth and the formation of paclitaxel content are better under dark conditions than under light conditions. Regardless of the type and location of the tissue culture method, the composition of the cells with strong proliferative capacity in the middle layer (the surface cells contain a large amount of starch granules, the core cells have no nucleus, and the tubular cells that are prone to differentiation) must be selected. This is conducive to the formation of intercellular strands of cells, thus forming large cell clusters, which is conducive to signal transmission between small cells. As a result, the cells of Taxus spp. exist in the form of cell clusters, producing functional cell bodies, promoting cell cluster regionalization, and cell functional differentiation, which is the prerequisite for the production of metabolites by Taxus chinensis.

(3) Artificial cutting propagation of Taxus chinensis With the decreasing resources of Taxus chinensis and the increasing demand, the rational use of Taxus chinensis and the development of Taxus yunnanensis are in no hurry. Under the policy of "guaranteeing medicinal use, prohibiting the use of materials," we can make more effective use of foliage. Under the background of the provincial government's "taxus project," it actively advocated afforestation and tree planting for all people. While protecting the resources of the existing wild yew, artificial cuttings and breeding of yew are still the most effective and practical means. The base has been actively exploring this area for many years and has accumulated a wealth of practical experience. In 1994, the earliest breeding of yew in the national artificial clones was successful. And created the world's first artificial yew forest.

At present, this base has the world’s largest yew seedling base, and the number of yew seedlings is 1/5 of the total amount of yew in the world. The cutting propagation of yew is better in the spring, and twigs are better in spring, and hard branches are better in autumn. . In general, low shelf shading treatment is required. Generally, the survival rate of cuttings can reach more than 80%. The shading rate should not be less than 60%. The cutting base must be carefully handled. At the beginning of the humidity, it should be intermittently maintained at about 75-85%. Avoid losing water through strong winds. The factors that affect the survival rate of cuttings are generally: age, temperature, concentration of chemicals, matrix, season, humidity, species, and other human factors. The data shows that the highest survival rates for cuttings of several taxas are generally: 95% of Taxus cuspidata, 95% of Taxus chinensis, 90% of Taxus yunnanensis and 86% of Taxus chinensis. In the first year rooting process of cutting seedlings, the aboveground part Slow growth, but rapid rooting and lateral root development. After the second year of transplanting, further shade treatment and seedbed management are required. Ensure the corresponding environmental conditions and accelerate growth. With the fastest growth in summer, winter and spring are slow. At this point, attention should be paid to changes in temperature. Long-term drying can cause growth inhibition or sudden death. However, the seedling survival rate of yew is very high after the seedlings are strong. Few deaths and rapid growth. The application of cutting methods is the most effective way to solve the shortage of resources in Taxus chinensis and accelerate the construction of medicinal forest of Taxus chinensis. At the same time, from the current market situation, after the second year from the start of cutting, the price of seedlings will increase exponentially without major interference. In recent years, some enterprises and individuals with economic strength have started investing in the project one after another, and some fast-moving companies or individuals have long since taken advantage of the business opportunities of yew to become a millionaire multi-millionaire.

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