Effect of Puffing Process on Nutritional Value of Aquatic Feed

Feed is the most expensive item in fish farming production. General feed expenditures account for about 60% to 75% of the cost of farming. It can be seen that the use of appropriate processing technology to improve the efficiency of feed utilization has important economic significance. The purpose of feed processing is also to fully exploit and exploit the potential of feed nutritional value, improve product quality and feeding effects.

The impact of feed processing on animal nutrition has always been a concern of feed processing technologists and nutritionists, and it is a guarantee that scientific formulas can be realized. The combination of processing technology disciplines and animal nutrition disciplines has resulted in greater improvements in animal performance, body health and animal product quality. In recent years, with the development of the aquaculture industry, people have higher and higher requirements for feed quality. At the same time, feed processing methods and processing technologies are constantly expanding and improving. In order to meet the needs of this development, people pay more and more attention to the research on the impact of processing on nutrition, that is, the impact of processing on the nutritional value of feed and animal performance. To this end, this paper summarizes the relevant research results of the laboratory in recent years.

First, the question is raised

At present, everyone's views on the superiority of puffed feed are relatively consistent, and most of their understandings are based on foreign studies on channel catfish, European catfish and catfish. According to the current market application of extruded extruded feed, we believe that there are several characteristics:

1. The same formula is superior to conventional hard pellet feed for the breeding effects of grass carp, carp, carp, tilapia, etc., such as growth rate and feed efficiency.

2. The production cost of extruded feed of the same feed formula is higher than that of hard pellet feed by about 150-200 yuan/t.

3. Some of the fish cultured in the expanded feed are very fat and not transportable.

So, what is the reason why the culture effect of extruded extruded feed is better than that of hard pellet feed? In theory, on the one hand, it may be due to the fact that extruded extruded feed improves the digestion and utilization of feed by farmed fish. Because the effect of extrusion processing on the properties of feed is beneficial and disadvantageous. The properties of the feed ingredients and the chemical constituents such as proteins and carbohydrates in the raw materials are changed by the expansion process, which significantly improves the digestion and utilization rate of the fish. On the other hand, the excellent effect of extruding the feed may be merely a saving effect on the feed during the feeding process. According to research data at home and abroad, in ponds and cage culture production, 5% to 30% of the feed is fed directly to the aquaculture water without feeding, resulting in waste of feed and pollution of water. The extruded puffed feed can maintain the integrity of the granules within 24 hours because most of them are floating feeds and have good shape retention in water. Therefore, the amount of feed loss during feed feeding can be significantly reduced. In this way, when the feed amount is the same, the extruded feed can be fed by the cultured fish more than 5% to 30% of the feed of the hard pellet feed, thereby producing a remarkable breeding effect.

If the former is inferred, the extrusion processing method should significantly improve the digestion and utilization rate of feed ingredients, especially plant feed ingredients, then further increase the proportion of plant feed ingredients used in feed formulations, and even develop no fishmeal, no animals. The whole plant-based compound feed product of protein feed raw materials can significantly reduce the feed cost, and can also improve the quality of farmed fish, such as the meat flavor and body shape of farmed fish. If the latter is inferred, then the excellent effect of extruding the feed is only the result of a reduction in the loss of feed in the aquaculture production, and all problems are simplified. Or both. How to quantitatively evaluate the above inference, it is necessary to carry out a large number of experiments, such as laboratory tests (ex vivo digestibility, protein solubility, enzymatic kinetics, etc.) and production tests, for comprehensive evaluation. The solution to this problem is a deep understanding of the expanded feed, which has great guiding significance for the production of farmed fish feed.

Second, the impact of puffing on the biochemical composition of feed

For the same batch of expanded and unexpanded soybean meal, cotton aphid, rapeseed meal, corn, secondary meal, fish meal and meat and bone meal, the conventional nutritional composition was measured by conventional methods. It can be seen from Table 1 that the moisture content of the feed after puffing is increased, and the water content of the plant energy feed corn and the secondary powder is increased to the highest, reaching more than 4%; followed by the plant protein feed, soybean meal, cotton aphid and rapeseed meal. After puffing, the moisture content increased by 2.5% to 3.5%; while the animal protein feed fishmeal and meat and bone meal expanded, the moisture content increased the least, below 2.0%. This may be because the loose structure inside the feed material after puffing is more likely to absorb water, especially the higher the starch content, the stronger the ability to absorb water after puffing. The results in Table 1 confirm this. However, we calculated the nutrient content of the feed before and after puffing on a dry matter basis, and the protein content of the feed dry matter remained basically unchanged, indicating that puffing had no effect on the nitrogen content of the feed. However, the effectiveness of amino acids in the feed after puffing is reduced, especially the effectiveness of lysine is reduced. How to quantify the decrease in lysine utilization rate and the increase in starch gelatinization rate? This is the key impact of the expansion process on the nutritional value of feed, and it is worthy of systematic and in-depth study. In general, after the feed is puffed, the moisture content is increased, and the nutrient level of the feed air-dried material is lowered, but the nutrient level of the feed dry matter remains basically unchanged. This requires feed producers to improve the management of puffed feed, shorten storage time and prevent deterioration.

Table 1 Changes in conventional nutrients before and after puffing of several feeds (% of air-dried matter)

Feed ingredients

Moisture

Crude protein

Crude fat

Ca

  P

Coarse ash

Protein /dry matter

Cardamom

11.195

46.79

1.93

0.30

0.63

6.03

52.67

Expanded soybean meal

14.679

44.65

1.65

0.20

0.57

5.76

52.33

Cotton aphid

10.394

39.80

1.31

0.36

0.96

6.31

44.42

Puffed cotton aphid

13.867

38.34

1.09

0.32

0.89

5.95

44.26

Dish

11.073

36.89

1.50

0.58

1.02

8.27

41.48

Puffed vegetables

13.614

35.75

1.29

0.48

0.97

7.84

41.38

corn

12.947

8.25

3.10

0.05

0.26

1.53

9.48

Puffed corn

17.352

7.54

2.58

0.03

0.23

1.49

9.12

Secondary powder

11.812

15.43

2.20

0.09

0.48

1.77

17.50

Puffed powder

15.874

14.37

1.74

0.07

0.42

1.73

17.08

Fish meal

10.110

58.74

4.95

4.96

3.15

12.96

65.35

Puffed fish meal

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The goji berry is very healthy and therefore high on the list of super foods. The berry (Lycium barbarum) belongs to the Nightshade family and originates from Asia. In China, goji berries have been used for some four thousand years in medicine and food.

 

Goji berries are very vesatile: they can be used in infusions, medicines and dietary suplements, and it is eaten fresh. Dried goji berries can be eaten as they are, but are also delicious when added to bars, baked goods and muesli.

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