Auricularia auricula, commonly known as oyster mushroom, is mainly produced in the mountains in the eastern part of northeastern China and is a very rare wild food-medicine combination. Its nutrition is very rich, containing protein, sugar, VE, VB1, VB2, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and other trace elements and glutamic acid, lysine and other human essential amino acids. Deaf fruit has a special flavor, is a rare and delicious mushroom, is also a medicinal mushroom. Pharmacology and experiments have shown that the ear has a strong anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer effect, clinically used mainly for the treatment of enteritis, dysentery, gastric ulcer and other diseases, the cancer of the digestive system has a better prevention and suppression. The fermented juice of eucalyptus, which has the strongest inhibitory effect on the bacterium of the genus Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas, is often eaten with oysters, which can enhance immunity, strengthen health, and prolong life.
In recent years, people's awareness of the value of edible food and medicinal products has increased, and the market demand has been increasing. However, due to the depletion of wild resources and the destructive collection of people, it is difficult to obtain in the market, and prices have doubled. .
Although it is successful in bag cultivation, it is unpopular in the market due to its color, texture, and texture that are far less than those of wild ears. It is particularly appealing to foreigners (mainly Japan) and Taiwanese businessmen.
In recent years, we have used the tree stalks of sorghum and spring sorghum to artificially cultivate scallops, which has yielded considerable benefits. Each cubic meter of eucalyptus wolfberry fruit can produce 15kg ear dry products, with the production of tree wolfberry planted oyster ears, color, texture, taste exactly the same as the wild ear, so in short supply in the market, the lowest price is now 300 yuan / kg.
1 Biological characteristics
The ear bud body is divided into two types, one-single-single or imbricate-like, with a dorsiflexion, sessile or short-handling, glial, soft when fresh, and hard after drying. Cap mature when the diameter of 2 ~ 15cm, thickness of 3 ~ 6mm, the surface gray or orange, soft fluff on the back, and there are small borers, bacteria flour red to light brown, translucent, near colloidal. Spores are colorless and oval.
The loquat fruiting body is mainly found on the dried trunks of the broom and spring clams, especially the tree stumps after felling, and the dense branches in the lower part of the clams, forming a good shade condition. The clams grow on the joints that are dead and have not yet died. In August and September, a large number of events occurred.
2 Living conditions
It can decompose and use carbon sources such as glucose, dextrin and soluble starch. It can also decompose and use cellulose and hemicellulose in wood without using lignin. It can also decompose and use nitrogen from soybean meal, wheat bran, rice bran, peptone, etc. The source can not use inorganic nitrogen source, so the medium can add organic nitrogen source instead of using chemical fertilizer. The medium must also be supplemented with inorganic salts such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate as adjuvant nutrition.
The cockroach is a low-temperature, solid-tolerant fungus with a mycelial growth temperature of 5 to 30Â°C, a suitable temperature of 20 to 27Â°C, and an optimum temperature of 25Â°C. Above 30Â°C, the growth of mycelium is very fast, but the hyphae are not robust, thin and weak, but above 35Â°C, they are easy to die.
The fruit body primordium formation is preferably 10-22Â°C, and the basal differentiation is 17-22Â°C as the optimal temperature range. It has been proved that germination at temperatures above 30Â°C can not form primordia even under appropriate environmental conditions. However, the formation of primordia at 25Â°C is the most beneficial.
Eucalyptus mycelium can grow at 40%ï½ž75% moisture content of matrix, preferably 60%ï½ž65%.
During the growth and development stage of fruiting bodies, the relative humidity of the air should reach 85%, less than 80% of the primordium is not easy to differentiate, and below 70%, the primordium does not differentiate. After the ear is formed, the ear develops well in dry and wet alternate environments and prevents bacterial infections.
The growth of mycelium does not require light, and light has an inhibitory effect on the growth of mycelia; however, fruiting bodies need to be stimulated by scattered light and can affect the color of the fruit body.
Auricularia auricula, fresh mycelia growth and fruit body development require fresh air. In the fruiting body growth stage, lack of air will inhibit growth or present brain malformation.
The pH of 4-8 hyphae can grow, and the optimum pH is 5.5-7.
3 Bacterial arrangements
3.1 Separation and expansion of strains
Use fruit body tissue separation. A small piece of the ear tissue was placed on a PDA medium and cultured at 25Â° C. After the sprouting took a long time, the tip hyphae were purified and cultured to obtain a mother seed. The mycelium was white at first, and turned yellowish at the later stage. The mycelia was velvet-shaped, villous and interlocking. The mother seed is inserted into the sawdust medium, which is the original species after culturing, and then the cultivar is expanded. Usually about 30 days full bottle.
3.2 Seed production and cultivation time
In the northeastern region, sowing was carried out from mid-March to early May, and the cultivar was expanded for 40 days.
3.3 The original species and cultivars culture medium and composition.
78% of wood chips, 15% of bran, 5% of soybean powder, 1% of sugar, and 1% of gypsum. Feed water ratio: 1:1.3 to 1.6.
4 tree seed cultivation
4.1 Tree Species Selection and Processing
The tree species suitable for the growth of the ear are better for home and spring. After the defoliation, the tree pods are cut down after the sprouting. The twigs whose diameter is more than 5 cm can be used. After cutting the branches, they are sawed into 1m sections of wood. The shape of the "well" is placed in a ventilated sunny place. The bottom is covered with stones by 20cm, and the grass is covered at the top to make it lose water and cause death.
4.2 seed germination
Drill holes in the tree pods, with 10cm spacing, 5cm spacing, 1.2cm hole diameter and 1.5~2.0cm hole depth. The plum shape is staggered. Connect the strains to the bark, then mix them with the yellow mud and sawdust 7:3 ratio. Then wet the 50% wettable carbendazim 800 times and apply the inoculation hole.
Digging pits in a clean environment with sunny winds, depth 1.3m, width 1.6m, length depending on the amount of production, the bottom of the padding stones, about 10cm high, the wood section "well" shaped piled with straw bag cover, Plus plastic film insulation, moisturizing. When the natural temperature reached 18Â°C, the wooden sections were moved out and piled up in the shape of a well under the shade of the ground. The floor was raised with a 15cm brick, and the pile height was not more than 1m. The needle branches were covered to prevent direct sunlight from the wooden sections. In order to make the bacteria evenly, turn it on every 10 days, and change it up and down. Sprinkle the soil every 5 days, so that the wood section to maintain the appropriate moisture content, air relative humidity to maintain 80% to 85%. When the stack temperature exceeds 25Â°C, spray water to cool down.
4.3 ear management
It usually takes 60 to 90 days for germs to develop. There are buds on the section of the wood section. Because more than 90% of the fruiting bodies in the first year are grown from wood section cuts. To increase the ear surface, a 1m section of wood can be cut into 3 sections of 33cm each. After the interception. Should be soaked (water must be clean), so that the water content of more than 65%, after flooding, a large number of ear occurs. At this point it is important to enhance the scattering of light and ventilation ventilation, and often spray water, so that it reaches dry - wet - dry - wet, and the formation of day and night temperature difference, in order to facilitate the growth of ear growth.
4.4 Harvest processing
When the ears are fully expanded, the roots contract, the edges curl, and the color of the ears changes from pink to brown, they can be harvested. A sterile knife can be used to cut the ear piece. Do not spray water within 2 days after harvesting. After the ear root is re-developed, spray water to avoid ear rot. The post-harvesting ears shall be dried in the sun or dried at a low temperature so that the moisture content is below 13%, and they are stored in a polyethylene plastic bag.
4.5 Pest Control
The anti-stress ability of the ear ear is weaker than other edible fungi, and it is highly susceptible to mold contamination during production, and Trichoderma is a serious problem. In addition, it is also vulnerable to bacteria, aphids, and worms.
Pests and diseases need to be prevented. Prevention is greater than cure. The ear field should be built away from villages, pastures, and roads (300m away) with clean air and clean water. Miscellaneous people are prohibited from entering the area, and staff must speak about hygiene. When placing the wood section, lime or bleaching powder shall be sprinkled on the ground of the ear field for disinfection and sterilization. Once pests and diseases occur, their control methods are basically the same as other edible fungi.
5 Live tree gardenia cultivation
In the past five years, the author has sought to cultivate eucalyptus on live scorpions, and has also initially achieved success. He has already applied for a national patent. This method is to use a piece of live tree scorpion or artificial afforestation. In due season, the eucalyptus is 1.5m high. At truncated sites, the eucalyptus tree retransmits new shoots, forms crypts, inserts strains at half-baked positions, strengthens management, and begins to produce ears in the next year. This technique has the advantage of being vaccinated once, producing ear for many years until the death of the tree, suitable for large-scale cultivation.
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