The farmer said: â€œI would rather be short of one day's feed and have no shortage of water.â€ Water plays an extremely important role in the metabolism of dairy cows. Dairy cows maintain normal physiological functions and complete the digestion, transportation, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients in the body. boiling water. Water accounts for about 65% of the cow's weight, and the milk's moisture content accounts for about 87%. When sufficient clean drinking water is provided, cows will drink more, eat more, and produce more milk. Cows consume 5 kilograms of water per kilo of dry matter consumed. Dairy cows need 3 to 5 liters of water for every liter of milk produced. This means that high-yielding dairy cows need 150 liters of fresh drinking water every day. In production, some dairy farmers often only pay attention to the supply of refined roughage. To a certain extent, they neglected the important role of drinking water, resulting in insufficient drinking water, loss of appetite, slow digestion, slow growth of young cattle, decreased milk production of adult cattle, and good health. Seriously damaged. Therefore, sufficient attention must be paid to the problem of water consumption for dairy cows in production.
First, ensure the quality of drinking water
1. Water is not polluted
The choice of water source should meet the standard and the water source is sufficient. In urban areas, tap water with good water quality should be selected. In the rural areas, underground deep well water should be selected. The water source of dairy farms should avoid pesticide plants, chemical plants, slaughterhouses, etc. There should be no pollution sources within 50 to 100 meters around the water source. If surface water is used as drinking water, sedimentation, purification and disinfection should be performed according to the water quality before drinking. Normally, 6 to 10 grams of bleaching powder or 0.2 grams of poisoning agent is added per cubic meter of water. When well water is selected, it is best to use deep well water. The wells should be covered and sealed to prevent the entry of dirt and sewage. Grazing cows do not have to drink water, rainwater, etc.
2. Water quality meets the requirements
Drinking water quality should meet the standard, with no more than 10 E. coli per liter of water, a PH value of 7.0 to 8.5, and a water hardness of 10 to 20 degrees. To ensure good water quality, drinking water should be monitored regularly. Excessive hardness of the water can generally take cold water to reduce its hardness. In high-fluorine areas, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide can be added to drinking water to reduce the fluorine content.
3. Guarantee drinking water appliances
Drinking water appliances should be kept clean, washed daily and regularly sterilized. Especially in the summer, care should be taken to maintain hygiene and prevent the growth of microorganisms and water quality. In addition, the sanitary conditions of the sinks in the sports grounds cannot be neglected, and they must be washed and regularly sterilized on a daily basis.
Second, sufficient scientific water supply
The water requirement of dairy cows is related to factors such as the season, temperature, feed variety, amount of feed intake, age, weight, and milk production. In the environment of about 10Â°C, feeding 1 kg of dry feed, the amount of water needed is about 3.54 kg. In the environment of about 24Â°C, each kg of dry feed is eaten, and the amount of drinking water is about 5.5 kg. Dairy cows need much more water than non-milk cows. For example, a daily milk output of 30 kilograms and daily water supply of 90 to 110 kilograms can meet the needs of dairy cows. There is also a difference in the daily water consumption of young cows and yaks. For a one-month-old yak, its water requirement mainly comes from the moisture in the milk. The yak needs 1 to 3 months of daily water supply to be up and down 10 kilograms, and the yak from 3 to 6 months old needs to reach 15 kilograms. The average daily water consumption of cattle is about 30 kilograms. Conditional cattle farms (households) can install automatic drinkers in the cowhouse to allow cattle to drink water at any time. Regular water supply is also available daily, usually 3 to 4 times a day, 5 to 6 times a day in summer. There should be a sink in the stadium to ensure fresh and clean drinking water supply. In short, no matter what method you use to provide water, you must ensure that the cows drink enough water.
In the summer, cows should be given cool water, or some heat-stress-resistant drugs such as baking soda, Vc, etc. should be added to drinking water, drinking water appliances should be added, sufficient drinking water should be provided, drinking times and drinking time should be increased, or dairy cows should be given hot weather. Drink cool green bean soup to slow the cow's heat stress and increase milk production.
Dairy cows drink water in winter and spring is not less than summer and autumn. The main reason is that there are more green and juicy feedstuffs for dairy cows in summer and autumn, but there are relatively insufficient green and juicy feeds for winter and spring, and the dry matter supply is more. Therefore, we must pay attention to the supply of sufficient water for cows in winter and spring. Insufficient water supply to dairy cows will directly lead to a decline in milk production and trigger other disorders. Dairy cows must avoid drinking ice water, which can easily lead to indigestion, thereby inducing digestive tract diseases and seriously affecting their milk yield. It is best to heat the water to 10-25 degrees when the cows drink water. In addition, dairy cows need water supply throughout the day and should not press Water. Practice has proved that in the winter, some concentrates will be brewed with boiled water into gruel for cows to drink, which can significantly increase milk production.
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