First, the requirements of walnuts on environmental conditions
1. The temperature walnut belongs to the thermophilic tree species, and the suitable temperature range and frost-free period are: the annual average temperature is 9 degrees - 16 degrees, the extreme minimum temperature is minus 25 degrees - negative 2 degrees, the extreme maximum temperature is below 38 degrees, and the frost period is 150 Days below.
2, light walnut light hi. After entering the result period, more lighting conditions are needed. The sunshine hours of the whole year must be more than 2000 hours to ensure the normal growth and development of the walnuts. If less than 1000 hours, the nuclear shell and nucleoli are all poorly developed. In the cultivation, from the choice of the garden, planting density, cultivation methods, and pruning, all must consider the lighting problem.
3. Soil Soil is the base for the growth and development of all plants. Walnut's huge roots and trees first require a deep layer of soil (greater than 1 meter) to ensure its good growth and development. The walnuts are loose and well-drained, and grow poorly in the soil where the groundwater level is too high and the clay is heavy. It grows best on calcium-containing slightly alkaline soils. The suitable range of soil pH value is 6--8, which has a strong effect on growth. Good fertilizer of walnut requires fertile soil and high organic matter content.
4, moisture walnut resistant to dry air, but the soil moisture is more sensitive to the soil too dry or too wet are not conducive to the growth and solidity of walnuts. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt soil and water conservation engineering measures in the mountain and walnut gardens, and to solve the drainage problem in the plains.
Second, planting methods should be based on site conditions, cultivars and management levels vary. In general, the principle of high yield, stable production, and easy management should be achieved in terms of unit area. For early eating walnuts, due to its early results, the tree body is smaller, 23 meters or 24 meters plan dense planting can be used, when the tree canopy closed poor light, can be planned to cut into 56 or 78 meters.
Third, planting techniques to improve planting survival rate and planting young trees is an important part of building a garden for walnuts. It is also a basic work to achieve strong trees, early food, and high yields. It is necessary to ensure the quality of planting in order to grow saplings robustly and smoothly. The development stage lays a good foundation for increasing production.
1. Site preparation: Prepare the soil for ripening and increase fertility in advance. The general site preparation specification is 808080cm. After the planting hole is dug, the topsoil and soil dung are mixed and filled into the bottom of the pit. The lower soil and quick-acting fertilizer are placed in the middle of the pit.
2. Seedlings: Only high-quality nursery stock can effectively use the cultivation conditions to achieve multiple results. Requires pure seedling varieties, complete root and lateral roots, no pests, and strong resistance to stress. It is best to have a 2- to 3-year-old seedling, with a seedling height of more than one meter, a dry diameter of not less than one centimeter, and more fibrous roots to ensure survival and robust growth.
3. Planting Techniques: Before planting walnut seedlings, the roots and roots of the seedlings should be cut off and then soaked in water for a long time, or the roots should be soaked with mud to make the roots absorb enough water to facilitate survival. Then nest the nest in the middle of the entire pit. The size of the nest depends on the planting seedlings. When planting, Miaozheng should be used to stretch the root system, stratified filling should be practical, and the roots should be evenly distributed. The soil should be leveled with the ground. After full-fledged work, the tree plate should be shot and fully filled with water. After water infiltration, cover with fine soil. It is about 20cm above ground level. Seedling planting depth can be slightly more than the depth of the original seedlings, but the grafting interface must be exposed outside, and then watered again seven days after planting.
Nursing Management and Pruning and Shaping (I) Nursing Management
1. The main season of weeding is the period of high temperature and drought in summer. Weeds must be used to reduce the competition between weeds and saplings for water and fertilizers. In other seasons, only plants that have an impact on citrus growth can be removed, and low weeds should not be eliminated. . In recent years, weeding with chemical herbicides has mostly been used:
(1) Glyphosate: 100 grams per mu (active ingredient), add 50-60 kilograms of water, spray evenly on weeds with a hand-held sprayer. Pay attention to lowering the faucet as far as possible. Do not spray the liquid on the branches, leaves, or stems of the seedlings. Otherwise, they will die from phytotoxicity. After application, it must not rain for more than 8 hours before it can reduce the efficacy.
(2) Herbicide No. 1 0.3 kg/mu, Simadzu 120 g/mu, or diuron 0.2 kg/mu.
2. Intercropping: The results of walnuts are relatively late. Intercropping in the walnut garden not only increases the production of oil and other economic crops, but also promotes the growth of walnuts and increases the yield. However, it is not appropriate to plant high-crop crops. Practices in various regions have proven that walnuts are suitable for intercropping melon and potato in young age; middle-aged trees can be intercropped with millet, Chinese herbal medicines and green manure plants; older trees can be intercropped with wheat and other hi-light crops. The yield of spring sowing crops is relatively high, and there is no major impact on the growth and development of trees. However, fertilizer and water management must be strengthened between May and June to resolve the conflict between fertilizer and water. A tree tray with a diameter of 1 meter or more should be left under the tree. Pay attention to rotation.
3, fertilizer and water management: walnuts on the fertilizer and water requirements are high, even if the thick layer of walnut forest, but also to strengthen fertilizer and water management. In the pre-emergent, after-flowering, early-July fruit hard-nutrition period and four times before the land is frozen and fertilized, it is beneficial to germination, shoots, and flowering, and promotes fruit hypertrophy, fullness of seed and water overburden. In order to use manure and green manure as main fertilizers, in conjunction with application of compound fertilizer, each adult tree needs about 100-200 kg of manure or green manure, and 50-100 kg of human excrement or urine. It is also possible to combine fertilization of crops between rows, especially from April to May, when walnut trees and crops need fertilizer. The green manure that is tanned between the plants or the fresh foliage and weeds of the green manure plant, the mash up and the soil into the furrows are effective for improving the soil fertility, promoting nuclear growth, and increasing the yield.
1, fertilization time: (mainly refers to 5 years before planting)
(1) Germination fertilizer (pre-flowering fertilizer): It is generally conducted from February to March.
(2) Steady Fruit Fertilizer: After Xie Xie until June-July, multiple compound fertilizers are mainly applied.
(3) Fruit-promoting shooter fertilizer: Generally, topdressing is applied before the autumn shoots are germinated, and compound fertilizer and organic fertilizer are applied together.
2, fertilization method: It is best to mix organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, the method is:
(1) Ring method: Take the trunk as the center and open a fertilization ditch along the circumference of the tree crown. Generally, the depth of the ditch is 15-20 cm, and the width is 30-35 cm. The fertilizer is applied after the soil is applied.
(2) Strip method: fertilize between rows of plants.
(3) Radial method: Open 4 to 6 furrows with the trunk as the center, and open shallow furrows near the trunk, gradually deepening outwards.
(4) Spreading method: Fertilizer can be evenly spread under the canopy, and then shallowly dig into the soil.
4, mechanical trauma to promote the results: deep mountain areas, rainfall, humidity, some walnut branches and leaves vigorous growth, but no results, the people in the fruit area using root, trunk holes, chopping, peeling and other mechanical trauma methods to inhibit growth, Promote flower bud differentiation and increase yield. The reason that mechanical trauma can breed is that it partly destroys the channels of organic nutrient transport in the phloem, and stays on the ground part more, changing the proportion of sugar and nitrogenous substances in the tree, thus favoring flower bud differentiation and flowering results.
(1) After cutting off the roots or before sprouting, plan to open the root soil. At the point of 0.6-2 meters from the root neck, cut 1-5 lateral roots of 5-15 cm thick to make the fracture flow and remove the soil after the root is cut off.
(2) Insults Every year in the winter, the bark is cut with a quick axe at the base of the trunk, reaching deep into the xylem to make it watery, and the effect of increasing production is significant.
(3) Peel the skin: After peeling off, peel off the 8 square centimeters big skin on the main root, then cover the soil, the fruit can be increased, the quality becomes better.
It should be noted that these methods should be combined on the basis of strengthening the management of soil and fertilizer water. If the soil and water management is relaxed and the mechanical damage method is used too frequently, it will inevitably weaken the tree potential, cause premature tree failure, and significantly reduce production.
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