In recent years, Xiao Guan's happy shape and supporting technology have been recognized by the majority of farmers. The orchards that have been successfully reconstructed are fruitful and fruitful, and the economic benefits are significantly improved. However, there are still quite a few of them who know too little about the technical principles in the process of transformation, and are incapable of grasping the potential, shape, and quantity. According to the author's investigation, there are seven mistakes or misunderstandings worthy of attention, and at the same time, corresponding suggestions are provided for your reference.
First, eager to achieve success, tree-trend judgments, a large number of articles in the following year.
This class of fruit growers did not fully grasp the principle of transformation of Guanxiao's happy shape. They saw that the effect of special transformation was very good. They did not analyze the specific conditions of their orchards, blindly regardless of their age, tree vigor, and they fell in a stereotyped manner. , A change to a happy shape, greatly violated the technical principles of the happy shape transformation. Substantial reductions in the number of branches and yields resulted in a high concentration of nutrients on the trees and a serious imbalance in the ratio between roots and crowns, resulting in a large number of strips emerging from young trees, golden trees, and young trees.
Farmers of this type should understand one reason: The purpose of reform is to produce more results. It is not for shape modification. Reshaping is just a technical means of transforming closed orchards. In order to achieve multiple results and achieve good results, it is necessary to maintain a moderate and healthy tree-trend every year. Judging the standard of tree vigor: â€œIn the year, the length of new shoots was more than 30 cm, and it accounted for about 10% of the total branches of the whole tree; some new shoots had a small amount of secondary growth; branches were full, and the buds were full and full of moderate strength and robustness. More than 15% of the trees with strong secondary growth rate are strong lush trees. Conversely, with less than 5%, there are almost no secondary growth branches, which are not substantial, and the poor fullness of top end buds is a weaker tree potential. The strength and weakness, according to the number of branches, the amount of flowers and the tree's load capacity, grasp the amount of pruning.
Generally, the amount of trees in the moderation tree should be controlled at about 30%, 25% at Wangshu, and about 40% at weak trees. Do not rush to change shapes when you are too strong and prosperous. You should lightly cut or not cut the whole tree under the premise of improving lighting. A long-term approach to disperse nutrients shall be implemented after all trees have been reduced to flowers; if the trees are too weak, underground management shall be strengthened, water and fertilizers shall be strengthened, and the tree shall adopt a method of congruence, ie, reducing growth points, removing Weak branches, weak shoots, raising the height of the main branch, using strong branches to take the lead, to be restored after the tree potential recovery. In the whole process, we must always put the tree-truck in the first place, change the shape around the tree, obey the tree-trend, and control the tree-trend is the key to reshaping.
Second, there are no permanent trees or temporary trees between groups.
Some fruit growers did not divide permanent and temporary strains during the transformation. As a result, some permanent permanent branches were sawn off and gave way to temporary trees, causing serious losses that were difficult to make up later. What is more, when the permanent temporary tree is handed over, the permanent temporary branches are shrunk, causing the retracted branches to rejuvenate. The problem of mutual transfer of the main branches has not been completely solved, making it impossible to expand the true permanent branches.
In fact, as long as the permanent tree and the temporary tree are marked in the orchard and the permanent tree meets the temporary tree, the shade branches on the temporary tree are removed and the permanent group is given way. In the permanent tree, the temporary branch should give way to a permanent branch. Temporary trees can be completely removed when there is no space.
Third, the strong shape, the dogmatic selection, artificially increase the amount of pruning, postponed the formation of the crown.
Some fruit growers require stricter tree requirements when they are remodeled. Lift dry once to 1.5 meters 2 meters. However, there are many actual biased crown trees. Selecting the main branch at 1.5 meters or more will often negate the need for large branches and waste the existing resources (existing large branches). This not only results in a decline in yield, but also a drop in the tree. It also postponed the forming time of the canopy, but it did not reach the speed.
In this type of situation, the fruit growers should be open-minded and clear-headed. Do not pursue the form blindly. Instead, adjust to local conditions and follow the tree. Don't become a standard one at a time. The crown has its flexibility, the tree posture can be polymorphic, the dryness can be high or low, the crown diameter is suitable for the tree, and the tree posture can be varied. As long as the space is fully utilized, the light energy can be used to produce good results. , Convenient operation, good technology is a good tree.
Fourth, the shape of the branches and shapes of the branches and branches of the crown after the crown is not clear, the concept is vague.
Some fruit growers continue to use traditional cutting methods such as "short, retracting, capping, removing large and small, and keeping strong and weak" on branchlets, and dredging a large number of valuable large branch groups. The concept of class composition is unclear. The pruned tree looks like "a few branches and a small branch shines," so that after the removal of large branches, the branches are only properly stabilized with dense adjustments, and a large number of bars appear. At the same time, the main branch of the transformation does not form a fan-shaped surface but a uniaxial extension.
The cultivation of the branch group in the process of transforming Xiao Guan Guan Xing must be compatible with its target tree shape. Prior to the renovation, dense planting gardens were generally denser, and now they must be changed into small crowns and happy shapes. The original vertical leaf curtain should be turned into a horizontal leaf curtain. There is no long branch of dumping, the result of sagging, the horizontal leaf screen is difficult to reach about 2 meters, the amount of branches, yield, space use are not up to the desired target, can not reflect the small crown open main shape of the flat extension fan extension, The result was a characteristic of loose drooping of the branches. The use of long branch shoots to culture the resulting sticks will not only stabilize the tree potential and reduce the number of strips, but will also be natural and result in a large number of results. Therefore, in the process of reformation, we must completely change the traditional pruning methods, must be thorough on the long branches of slow release, adhere to a rejection and rejection of the guiding ideas of years of rejection, in accordance with "a year into branches, two years into flowers, three The technical route of annual results and drooping for four years goes to the end.
Fifth, the theory is not clear, technical errors.
Due to technical errors after the reformation, the tree body was heavily stripped and the remedial measures of softening and circumcision were not taken in the summer, allowing it to grow freely. Wangshu could not stop in time, consume large amounts of nutrients, and flower buds could not be formed. Serious continuous No output for several years.
How to deal with this kind of returning tree:
1 Suspend the head over the winter, which will play a major role in the stability of the whole tree. The main branches of Wangshu are evacuated with 1~2 larger strong branches and cooperate with many fruit-bearing fruits to control the fruit; on the main branches, the erect branches and the oblique branches with small angles are left with space. Ke Lazhi turned to.
2 delay trim. The trees that are particularly strong and prosperous are pruned after germination, so that the tree consumes nutrients and reaches a slowing trend.
6. The wound is not protected after sawing large branches.
Some fruit growers remove the large branches and the wounds are not protected, which causes the tree nutrients to evaporate from the wound. The xylem is chapped and the cortex shrinks, making the wound difficult to heal, causing lobular disease, rot disease, and latent damage to pests.
It is advisable to use the "sealing and shearing oil" recommended by the "Fruit Industry Special Issue" after sawing the large branches. The effect is quite good. If there is rot in the wound, you can first use the "healthy" solution to smear the affected area, and later apply it with sealing and shearing oil.
VII. Underground management cannot be ignored.
After many fruit growers have changed their shape, they think that the tree shape has been changed, air and light are transmitted, and the trees will be able to bear fruit. Therefore, no fertilizer, poor control of pests and diseases, resulting in remodeling apple production and quality decreased year by year, lost the significance of reform.
When Zhang Wenhe lectured, he emphasized that â€œtwo legsâ€ walked, that is, underground management and tree management were coordinated. The application of organic fertilizers and bio-fertilizers underground cannot be a "big three dollar" bombardment. After several years of experimentation, Wanter High-Protein Organic Fertilizer has an exceptionally good effect. It uses 120 kg per acre for consecutive years, and with thinning, thinning, and reasonable loads, it will be able to achieve high quality and stable yields, and it will be able to achieve high benefits.
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