Grass poisonous and harmful plants and their control

Toxic and Harmful Plants Toxic Plants In natural grassland, in addition to valuable forage plants, some livestock are not allowed to eat or eat, and sometimes even poisonous plants that cause poisoning to livestock. In the natural state, after being eaten by the livestock in the form of green feeding or hay, the normal growth and development of the livestock is hindered, and the physiological abnormality of the livestock is caused, and even plants that have died are called poisonous plants. According to statistics, poisonous plants on the natural grassland in the north of China are widely distributed and there are 238 species, belonging to 45 families and 127 genera.
There are many kinds of poisonous plants, usually divided into three categories, namely perennial toxic plants, seasonal poisonous plants and suspicious toxic plants.
1 perennial poisonous plants such as poisonous plants on the harm of livestock, widely distributed in the natural grassland, many types, a total of more than 100 kinds. Most of them contain various alkaloids in the body, and some of them contain photo-efficacy substances, which are extremely toxic. After eating, livestock often cause diseases of the central nervous system and digestive system, and even cause death.
Plants containing the above-mentioned toxicity are processed through the process of drying, silage, etc., and their toxicity is not weakened at all. Therefore, they pose a perennial threat to livestock and are likely to be poisoned at any time. Natural poisonous plants on the grass are: Aconitum, North Aconitum, Celandine, Wild Poppies, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Oxytropis sinica, Stellera chamaejasme, Euphorbia esculenta, Poisonous celery, Drunk horse grass, Frizz, etc. 60 Variety.
2 Seasonal Poisonous Plants Seasonal poisonous plants are plants that are toxic to livestock during a certain season and whose toxicity disappears or weakens in other seasons. Even in the season when it is toxic, such plants can achieve the purpose of reducing their toxicity if appropriate processing and modulation measures are taken. Such poisonous plants are widely distributed in natural grassland in the north, with about 70 kinds, such as: azalea, Pulsatilla, yucao yuca, ephedrine, turfgrass, and kumar.
3 Suspicious Poisonous Plants Some plants have not found the presence of toxic substances in their bodies, but they do not know what causes the animals to avoid eating, such as the bell grass, sand weeding and so on.
Harmful plants The so-called harmful plants do not contain toxic components themselves, but their plants, seeds, and fruits are barbed or awned. They often injure livestock and cause mechanical damage or reduce the quality of animal products, but they can also cause death of livestock. The common harmful plants are: genus of genus Sphaeropsis, Xanthium sibiricum, Aralia arborescens, and genus Hemerocallis.
For example, in the Stipa steppe, when its caryopsis are mature, shepherding herds not only stabs the sheep, but also degrades the quality of the wool, causing difficulties for the wool and fur industries. The loss of animal husbandry is also striking.
Causes of Poisonous and Harmful Plants Harmful to Livestock Poisonous plants cause livestock poisoning due to its presence of certain chemical components, including alkaloids, glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, saponins, lactones and poisons. Protein and so on.
Alkaloid-containing plants generally do not lose their toxicity under conditions of dry and silage; plants containing glycogen, the glycosides tend to drop significantly when dried, and the livestock feed is almost harmless; plants containing volatile oils are dry Under the conditions, the volatile oil contained in the body also decreased, but it also retained a considerable amount in the plant.
Plants vary in their age and environmental conditions, and their toxic and toxic effects are also different. In addition, the toxic effects of plants on different animal species, age, and individuals, etc., have different toxic effects.
Harmful plants often stab animals, cause mechanical damage or reduce the quality of livestock products, and cause death of livestock.
Control of toxic and harmful plants on natural grassland In natural pastures, toxic and noxious weeds occupy the grassland, absorb water and nutrients from the soil, and eliminate fine forage grasses with feed value, thereby reducing the production capacity and quality of pastures, especially Bring more losses to animal husbandry production. Therefore, efforts to prevent toxic and harmful plants cannot be ignored. The methods commonly used today are as follows:
Comprehensive prevention and control of toxic and harmful plant growth on natural grassland is closely related to the ecological environment. In different grasslands, due to different environmental conditions, the distribution and number of toxic and harmful plants are also different. Production practices have proved that the growth of toxic and harmful plants is also related to the irrational use of grassland. With the degradation of grassland, the number of toxic and harmful plants is increasing. Therefore, the rational use and improvement methods of many grasslands all inhibit the growth of toxic and harmful plants and make them disappear from the grass.
The above comprehensive prevention and control methods are generally slow, but they are easy to use and do not require cost.
Manual and mechanical control The method of removing weeds and poisonous grass using human and simple tools, namely mechanical weeding. This method is awkward and requires a lot of labor, so it can only be done on a small area of ​​grassland.
General mechanical weeding must pay attention to 1 root eradication, or destroy all germinating parts, so as to avoid re-growth.
2 Select after the rain, the soil is loose and easy to eradicate.
3 Must be done before weeds or poisonous grasses are solid.
4 If weeds are to be restrained by the full cutting method, the cutting height is based on the principle of not damaging the excellent pasture.
In practice, when grassland is grazing and grazing, the remnants of weeds and poisonous grasses are the most effective time for mechanical weeding.
Chemical control methods use chemicals to kill weeds, that is, chemical weeding. Any chemical agent that kills weeds is collectively referred to as an anti-caries agent or herbicide.
1 The characteristics of chemical herbicides are economical and labor-saving than manual or mechanical eradication. Selective herbicides can prevent valuable forages from being damaged. This method is not limited by topographic conditions and is conducive to soil and water conservation.
2 Types of chemical herbicides Chemical herbicides are classified according to their degree of damage to plants:
Inactivated herbicides: This class of agents kills various plants at a certain dose.
Selective herbicides: At certain doses, they are only capable of killing certain types of plants and are harmless or less harmful to other types of plants.
When weeds and poisonous grasses are eliminated on the grass, selective organic herbicides are generally used. There are many varieties of herbicides. Here are some commonly used herbicides.
a. 2,4-D herbicide (2,4-dioxyphenolacetic acid): It is a systemic selective herbicide. It has a strong killing effect on a variety of annual or perennial dicotyledonous weeds, but has poor effects on monocotyledonous plants. Dosage: 1.5kg to 3.75kg per hectare, add water 600kg to 700kg, spray.
b. 2M-4X (2-Formamidine-4-chlorophenol-acetic acid): This type of herbicide has a strong killing effect on dicotyledonous plants. Dosage: 3.75 kg to 15 kg per hectare, add water to 450 kg to 750 kg, spray.
c. Herbicidal ether (2.4-Dichloroformamidine-4-nitrodiphenyl ether): Another contact-killing herbicide, with certain selectivity, can kill various kinds of annuals such as green foxtail, flatworm clams, cockroaches, etc. For perennial weeds, herbicide ether can be formulated as a medicine or mixed with finely ground soil and spread uniformly. Dosage: 11.25 kg to 15 kg per hectare, add water 750 kg to 1500 kg, spray.
d. Trichosanthes (dalamin) 2,2 - sodium dichloropropionate): is a systemic selective herbicide, has a strong killing effect on dicotyledonous plants, and has a poor effect on dicotyledonous plants. Dosage: 7.5 kg to 22.5 kg per hectare, add water to 450 kg to 750 kg, spray.
e. Method of use of chemical herbicides: Herbicides are applied in two ways: foliar treatment and soil treatment. The method of using foliar treatment on the lawn is to dilute the agent to the prescribed concentration with water and spray the pesticide on the leaves of the plants in various ways so as to harm the weeds or toxic and harmful plants. The ground soil treatment method mainly uses soil mixing or drug mixing, directly spraying or spraying a certain concentration of liquid on the soil surface to achieve the control effect.
3 Spraying herbicide spraying equipment Aircraft spraying: It has the advantages of high efficiency, labor saving, uniform spraying and less consumption of medicine. The use of aircraft spraying on large areas of grassland is the most cost-effective method.
Machine-induced spray: It is a sprayer that is driven by tractors and other agricultural motor vehicles. It can handle 40 hectares to 50 hectares per day and the liquid consumption is 100 liters to 200 liters per hectare.
Precautions for Use of Herbicides in Grassland Before a large area of ​​spraying, a plot test must be conducted to determine the amount and concentration.
When spraying, choose a high temperature (about 20°C) and sunny weather. It should be sunny after 24 hours after spraying, otherwise it should be re-sprayed.
Should be carried out in the fastest growing or breeding period of plants, it is generally believed that the spraying effect is good at the seedling stage and flowering stage.
Spraying for 20 days to 30 days before grazing, so as not to cause animal poisoning.
Strictly abide by the operating procedures to ensure the safety of the staff to avoid poisoning.
Pay attention to the direction of the wind when spraying, and prevent the damage to crops and pastures at the windward place.

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