The yacon, also known as the chrysanthemum, is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Asteraceae, native to tropical South America. The plant is similar to Jerusalem artichoke (Euphorbia) and is a kind of root food. Its appearance resembles that of sweet potato. Its flesh tastes like a pear. Its skin is thin and juicy, sweet and crisp but without slag. It can not only be eaten raw, but also Vegetable stews and soups are the best dishes in the restaurant. In the past two years, the species was successfully planted in northern China. Through trial planting, it was found that Yakini has a strong adaptability, the environment is similar to that of the hawthorn, it is not tolerant to cold, and the frost stems are dead. The yacon fruit grows from 6 to 7 months. It is mainly vegetatively propagated in tubers. It is generally planted in spring or early summer and harvested in late autumn. Each plant produces 3 kilograms of fruit and the highest strain yields 10 kilograms. The yield is 3,000 to 4,000 kilograms per mu. So how do you grow the yacon scientifically?
First, land preparation and ridging
Choose lands with convenient irrigation and loose soil, apply 2000-3000 kilograms of manure per acre, 60 kilograms of high-quality phosphate fertilizer, 20 kilograms of potash fertilizer, 15-20 kilograms of compound fertilizer, and conditionally spread 10 kilograms of multi-element minerals. It has a good effect on increasing the output and commercial quality. Spread evenly after deep plowing. Planting spacing 1 meter, plant spacing 0.6 meters, before planting to ditch the ridge, the yak fruit seed blocks (seedlings) planted on the ridge back, acres planted 1000 to 1200 strains. In order to prevent the harm of underground pests, appropriate amount of quick lime can be applied in the planting hole.
Second, the purchase of seed seedlings
Before planting, you should purchase seedlings that are full, robust, and disease-free.
III. Pre-germination before planting
The yacon is a long-day crop. The earlier the planting time, the higher the yield and the more comprehensive the accumulation of nutrients. Therefore, the northern planting can promote the growth cycle by pre-germination. The bulbs begin to germinate at a planting time of about 30 days. The separated pellets are coded indoors or in a shed. The single layer or double layer can be directly covered with a single layer of 8 to 10 cm, and the covering soil must maintain a certain humidity. One layer of bulbs is covered with soil and covered with a plastic film. To germinate buds to form buds, it is necessary to promptly plant vegetation in order to facilitate normal growth.
IV. Cultivation and planting
During the period of colonization, they are different from each other. Generally, when the soil temperature is stable at 14Â°C-15Â°C in 5 cm, the spring can be planted. The protective cultivation can be planted in advance. The planting method can be used to transplant the seedlings after germination on the surface of the pods for transplanting, such as lyrics. Poor watering to protect seedlings. The yacon should strive for shallow species on the basis of ensuring survival. The planting depth is generally 5-6 cm. When planting, it is required to tightly seal the soil with the same depth and depth so that the plants will be exposed on the ground. When the water is poured, the mud will not stick, the cultivated seedlings shall be kept straight, and the seedlings shall not be exposed too long to prevent the wind from being affected by the wind.
V. Field Management
1. Seedling stage: After yacon is planted, seedlings should be checked and seedlings should be promptly inspected to ensure the whole seedlings. After planting, the seedlings should be irrigated once and then every 10-15 days. The humidity in the field is maintained at 60% to 80%, and the soil temperature is appropriate at 15 to 25Â°C.
2. Growth period: 30 to 40 days after planting, as the temperature rises, plant growth is accelerated, the amount of fertilizer and water required is large, and the management of water and fertilizer should be promptly strengthened. In case of drought, the compound fertilizer can be applied with water to a value of about 10 kg. Inferior base fertilizer can be applied with 2.5 to 4 kg of urea. After irrigating, timely cultivating and cultivating soil shall be carried out in the cultivating soil, and cultivating and cultivating the soil with the cultivator shall be carried out to prevent the ridge ridge from collapsing, so as to avoid causing seedlings to die.
3. Pruning leaves: When the stem grows to about 0.6 meters, it will give birth to a lot of litchi at the base, appropriate to leave two litchi growth, remove the excess litchi, and cultivator weeding, top dressing, soil anti-resting. After the plant grows to 50 cm in height, branches and tillers begin to appear and must be removed in time. In addition, when planting, it is best to sow or nurse seedlings for balanced growth. Growing more than one or more shoots will affect fruit yield and quality.
4. In the late period: from late July to late August, stems and leaves prosperous, fruit blocks formed, the leaf area coefficient reached the maximum, in order to promote the control, promote control. This period coincides with the high temperature season. Plants grow fast. To prevent leggy shoots, 50 ppm of paclobutrazol can be sprayed evenly. In case of drought, water is needed. To promote fruit enlargement, 5 kg of potassium can be applied in Mushi. In early September, when the fruit is growing, it is necessary to ensure that the soil moisture content is 60% to 70%, but do not water it within 20 days before the harvest of yacon. In the event of autumn, we must drain water in time to prevent hardship and rot. Before the summer heat, the leaves of yacon go into the transition period. In order to prevent premature aging, foliar spray can be applied. 200-250 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is used to spray 30-40 kg of water and spray twice.
The management of yacon fruit can not be ignored in the later period. In recent years, we have explored and explored that spraying PA expanding fruit in the expanding fruit period has a good help for fruit growth.
VI. Pest Management
There are few pests and diseases of yacon, mainly the control of ground tigers, early use of low-toxicity enemies to kill pesticides, and 50 kg of boiled soybeans per acre combined with top-dressing to compose poison baits to control underground pests such as cockroaches and cockroaches.
Seven, timely harvest
The fruit of yacon is an asexual vegetative body, there is no obvious maturity standard and harvest period, but the harvest has a close relationship with the output, seed storage, storage, processing and utilization, and crop rotation of yacon fruit. Harvesting prematurely will reduce the yield. Affected by low temperature and cold damage, the yacon harvest is appropriate. Generally, the stem tip of the plant begins to wither. After the frost, the leaves begin to yellow and the above-ground parts dry and begin to excavate the fruit. The north should finish the plan before the frost.
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