The mushroom belongs to Pleurotus ostreatus, and its texture is crisp, delicious and refreshing. It is rich in protein, polysaccharides, fats, vitamins, trace elements, and eight kinds of amino acids necessary for the human body. Therefore, it is also known as â€œMiso Mushroomâ€. Its fruiting bodies are solitary or clustered, small and beautiful, and the diameter of the mushroom cover is less than 3 cm, and the mushroom handle is shorter than 6 cm. Mushrooms are excellent new varieties to replace the oyster mushroom, and have great market potential.
I. Biological characteristics (1) Nutrition: Ingredients are cotton shells, hardwood sawdust, bagasse and crop stalks; accessories are bran, rice bran, gypsum, lime, etc.;
(2) Temperature: The growth temperature of the mushroom mycelia is 2-35Â°C, but it is most suitable at 24-26Â°C. The growth temperature of the fruit body is 5-30Â°C and 10-26Â°C is the most suitable. Can choose a reasonable cultivation season based on the climate of each place;
(3) Humidity: The hypha growth requires that the humidity of the culture medium should be 60-65%, and the humidity during the germination period should be 65%. The humidity of the meadow and the growth should be increased to 85-95%. Different periods can be properly adjusted; (4) Light: mushroom mushroom period does not require light, in the mushroom and mushroom body development process requires a certain amount of scattered light, in the corner of the mushrooming field can see the newspaper No. 5 is appropriate.
(5) Air: Mushrooms are aerobic fungi, requiring fresh air during mycelial growth and mushroom development, especially during mushrooming and growth. For instance, the site is not well ventilated, and the mushroom body is easy to grow into malformations. Ventilation can be achieved by opening and closing doors and windows.
(6) pH: The optimal pH for mycelium growth is 6-6.5. Acidity can be adjusted with lime or phosphate fertilizer.
Second, cultivation technology
1, the cultivation season: generally selected spring and autumn production. Spring planting is 3-4 months, and autumn planting is from September to October. The climate varies from north to south, depending on the mushroom's mushrooming temperature characteristics and natural weather conditions.
2. Formula of culture materials: The selection of culture materials should be based on local resources and adapted to local conditions. The raw material formula suitable for the growth of the small mushroom is:
(1) 28% cottonseed husk, 50% wood, bran 20%, gypsum powder 2%;
(2) 40% cottonseed husk, 40% bagasse, 18% bran, 2% light calcium carbonate;
(3) 35% cottonseed husk, 58% wood dust, 5% corn flour, 2% gypsum powder;
(4) 30% cottonseed husk, 30% wood dust, 20% straw, 12% wheat bran and 8% of powdered mushrooms. Yitong powder is a kind of auxiliary material, which can play the role of slow release of fertilizer, water retention, increase permeability, provide a variety of trace elements, and enhance high temperature resistance.
3, bagging and germination: mixing materials should be mixed, the water content adjusted to 60-65%, in order to hold the material means there are 2-3 drops of water droplets is appropriate. Plastic bags Choose 17 cm 33 cm 0.05 cm or 20 cm 35 cm 0.05 cm polypropylene or high-density polyethylene bags. The load is tight and moderate, and the culture material is close to the wall of the bag. After loading the material bag, the material surface is flattened, and then it is tied with a wire, placed in a sterilizer, sterilized under normal pressure at 100Â°C for 14-16 hours, autoclaved at 125Â°C for 2 hours, and then moved to a pan. Clean room. When the temperature in the bag falls below 28Â°C, it can be inoculated under sterile conditions. Each bottle of cultivar can receive 25-30 bags. During the germination period, the temperature is controlled at 24-27Â°C and the humidity is lower than 70%. Always ventilate and keep the air fresh and avoid light. Usually 30-35 days can be full bags, bacteria should be checked every 7-10 days once, found that there are bacteria should be immediately sputum out to prevent spread.
4, the choice of fruiting venues: Mushrooms can be indoors, but also in outdoor greenhouse cultivation. Mushrooms can be grown upright from the mouth of the bag, and can also be stacked wall-type mushroom, or off-bag grate bed soil cultivation.
5, mushroom management: the mushroom mushroom hyphae covered with bags and then continue to cultivate 3-5 days, so that the hyphae reach physiological maturity, accumulation of nutrients, and then shipped to the mushroom farm or in situ mushrooms. At this time, spray water on the ground and surrounding walls to increase the humidity to 85-95%, strengthen ventilation, increase the temperature difference, increase scattered light, promote the kinks of the mycelia, and form the primordium. Mushroom buds should not be sprayed directly to the mushroom body when it is formed. At this time, it is mainly to improve the air humidity of the field. After the mushroom body is slightly larger, it can be sprayed appropriately. The mushroom grows quickly and the conditions are suitable. Mushroom buds can be harvested after 1 day.
6. Harvesting: When the mushroom shells of fruiting bodies are flat and rolled in the edges, the diameter of the mushroom caps does not exceed 2.5 cm, and it is not suitable for rapid growth before harvesting. When harvesting, press the culture material with one hand, and gently grasp the mushroom body to remove it. Mushrooms are mostly clustered and harvested must be harvested once. If the temperature exceeds 25Â°C, collect mushrooms at least 3 times a day.
7. Pest control: Adhere to the principle of prevention and comprehensive prevention. It is necessary to keep the environment of the cultivation place clean and sanitary. Mushrooms, windows and doors vents should be set insect nets to prevent flying insects flying. The entire prevention and control process should pay attention to environmental protection, and it is forbidden to use chemical agents during fruiting stage.
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