Wheat consists of three parts: cortex, embryo, and endosperm. The inner and outer pods have been removed during threshing, and the grains are oval or elliptical. The top has hairs, called Maimao. The back is raised and the base of the back has an embryo. The ventral surface is flat and there is a depression in the middle called an abdominal groove. Wheat hair and groins are easy to hide dust and microorganisms, which is bad for keeping. In order to effectively strengthen the custody of wheat and ensure the safety of grain storage, we will briefly describe the method of custody of wheat in the storage process in light of the actual situation of warehouse custody in our city.
First, the basic characteristics of wheat custody:
Wheat has a long ripening period, high temperature resistance, strong moisture absorption, long-term storage, but easy to worms and other characteristics.
The length of wheat ripening period varies from variety to variety. Generally, it takes the germination rate of 80% to complete the post-harvest symbol. The maturity period of most varieties is about two months, and a few of them need more than 80 days, among which the white maturing wheat is more mature. Short, red-skin wheat ripening period is longer. After ripening, the wheat has a large amount of respiration and has a strong metabolism. It is prone to adverse changes such as sweating, fever, and mildew in the upper layer of the grain pile. White wheat is better than red wheat. Wheat has a quality after ripening. Improvements have been made and storage stability has improved.
Wheat has high heat resistance. According to the relevant experimental data, the grain temperature does not exceed 46Â°C when the moisture content is above 17%, the grain temperature does not exceed 54Â°C when the moisture content is below 17%, the enzyme activity does not decrease, the germination rate is not lost, and the flour quality is not reduced. The quality of ground flour has been improved, making it a soft, bulky steamed bread. This provides the possibility of wheat using high-temperature sun or high-temperature seal insecticide.
The moisture absorption capacity and moisture absorption speed of wheat are strong. During storage, it is easily affected by the external humidity, and the water content increases. White wheat is more hygroscopic than red wheat, soft wheat is larger than durum wheat, and grains and worms are grains. Greater than full plumage. Serious moisture absorption can cause moldy buds, so doing a good job of moisture protection is an important part of the safe storage of wheat.
The high temperature during the summer when the wheat is purchased, although beneficial for timely drying and storage, is also suitable for pest activities. New wheat stored in the warehouse is often infected, and because wheat has no shell protection, it is more vulnerable to a variety of insect pests. This is also a problem that the safe keeping of wheat should pay close attention to.
Second, the basic conditions for safe storage of wheat.
(A) warehouse conditions (work positions)
Before the acquisition of wheat in the warehouse, from the requirements of moisture-proof, rain-proof, pest-proof, and pollution-proof, the warehouses shall be selected to be free from leakage, the floor shall not return moisture, the walls shall be free from cracks, and the doors and windows shall be sealed, which conforms to the safe storage of wheat warehouses. As a warehouse, it is forbidden to store wheat in a dangerous house. While preparing enough warehouses, we must first carry out the necessary overhaul, cleaning, disinfection, and laying moisture-proof and moisture-proof work. The qualified units can put grain-receiving tools, packaging materials, and other equipment into empty warehouses for empty warehouses and fumigation. Disinfection, for long-term rental of warehouses that have been piled up or contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers, must be anti-fouling treatment. Secondly, the acquisition site should be cleaned up and leveled. The environmental sanitation around the drying yard should be cleaned, garbage, dirt, weeds should be cleaned, and the drainage ditch in the reservoir area should be dredged so that â€œthe inside of the warehouse and the outside of the warehouse will not be left. "To keep the acquisition site clean and dry.
(II) Facilities Conditions
Prior to the acquisition of grain, the following tools, equipment, and equipment should be calibrated, repaired, and purchased.
1, physical inspection equipment calibration, maintenance;
2. Calibration and maintenance of measuring equipment;
3. The equipment for "three defense facilities" must be complete and effective;
4, storage tank, ground cage, fan's finishing, overhaul, commissioning;
5, microcomputer temperature measurement system debugging or other temperature measurement tool preparation;
6. The purchase and preparation of the film used for sealing.
(III) Staff Training
Prior to the acquisition of grain, each purchasing and selling company and its directly affiliated organization shall organize the laboratory technicians, chemical defenders, and grain inspection personnel of the purchasing unit to conduct business training and technical exchanges, unify their eyes, conduct market quality surveys, and conduct quality problems that may arise during the acquisition. Analyze and know what to do in order to solve the problems in the acquisition and to unify the acquisition criteria.
(d) Quality conditions:
Food quality is the key and prerequisite for safe custody, and it is an inherent factor for food security. In order to ensure strict quality control in grain purchases, the quality standards for wheat storage should be controlled in principle within the following standards: water content below 13%; bulk density above 750 g/l; impurities within 1.5%; imperfect grain Below 6%; other quality indicators are subject to the national standard. Wheat that does not meet the above criteria must undergo measures such as drying, cleaning, and impurity removal. After passing the test, it can be stored in the warehouse. In the acquisition process, it is necessary to strengthen leadership, supervision and inspections, to conduct fair trade, to prohibit the acquisition of human sentiment, strictly to achieve "five divisions" (variety, good times, dry tide, with or without insects, and new ideas), and implement the classification into the warehouse. When the packaging grain is purchased, it is best to pack samples to prevent shoddy, doping, and making the storage more difficult.
Third, the main measures for wheat custody:
One sun, two freezes, and three pest control are the three major steps in safe custody of wheat.
(A) high temperature closed:
When wheat is exposed to high temperatures and sunlight, dry and precipitation can be achieved at the same time, and good effects of post-harvest and kill pests can be promoted.
Using high-temperature summer exposure of wheat, the barley will be sun dried to about 50 Â°C, continue for more than two hours, the moisture dropped to 12.5% â€‹â€‹or less, about 3 pm hot and warehousing, sealed storage. Keeping the grain temperature above 40Â°C for more than 10 days can effectively kill pests. It should be noted that warehouses, equipment, tools, and glands used for closed storage of wheat by hot storage must be thoroughly disinfected in advance and fully dried, so that the heat of grain, heat, tools, and equipment can be hot, otherwise condensation may occur. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen food inspection during the heat-sealing period.
The advantage of high temperature sealing is that it has a good insecticidal effect and can promote the completion of wheat ripening and enhance the stability of stored grain. This method is suitable for small warehouse capacity, rapid acquisitions, and high weather temperatures.
(B) cryogenic freezing:
Low temperature is the most ideal condition for food storage. Although wheat is resistant to high temperatures, it maintains a certain low temperature for long-term storage, which extends the life and quality of seeds, improves the stability of wheat storage, and delays the aging of wheat. With much superiority, all units should use the mechanical ventilation technology to carry out the overcrowding, remove impurities, cool and freeze, and reduce the temperature of wheat to 0Â°C. The glands are closed tightly to seal the overwintering pests. They have excellent results and can delay the influence of high temperature outside. According to local practice, during midsummer, the temperature of grain in the middle layer of grain piles is maintained at about 25Â°C, and the grain temperature in the lower layer is maintained at about 20Â°C, which can maintain the excellent quality of wheat for many years.
The alternating application of heat and cold airtightness is a good way to keep wheat in a food bank with less reserves. Generally, it can be done without damaging the insects. For large-scale grain storages, all of them are thermally and tightly closed, and may be limited in terms of conditions. However, as long as winter ventilation is adopted to prevent temperature condensation and prevent condensation, proper moisture-tightness and moisture-proofing before spring floods are required, and inspections are strengthened. Good pest control and other three tasks can generally be kept safely for years.
(c) Controlling and killing insects:
The main pests that harm wheat are wheat moths, corn elephants, wheat husks, Dagu Pirates, and Pigugu Pirates. During the wheat harvest season, the temperature is high, and the pests of the stored grain grow and reproduce quickly. The acquisition units must take control of the acquisition side. It is not easy for the acquisition to spread too much in the daytime. The use of high temperature sealed, after-ripening anoxic, low-dose fumigation, effectively kill the stored grain pests.
Thermal sealing and cold sealing are effective methods for controlling wheat pests. For example, in the absence of such conditions, it is necessary to pay close attention to chemical control. For the emergence of adult moth or found to have corn elephants, valleys, Dagu Pirates, Pirates of the valley, etc., regardless of the size of the density, they should immediately use chemical fumigation to prevent extinction.
When the acquisition work is nearing completion, all acquisition units must focus their efforts on wheat custody. In principle, before the end of July, all stocks of wheat should be cleaned, confined, sealed, fumigated, and completely controlled. The conventionally-stored wheat bins use about 15 g/t of aluminum phosphide, about 3 g/t of aluminum phosphide on one side, and about 5 g/t of aluminum phosphide on five sides. Before fumigation, airtightness should be carefully checked. During the fumigation process, special personnel should be assigned to work. After fumigation, the fumigation effect should be tested to prevent the fumigation effect from being poor, and the time and timing of delay should be delayed, resulting in unnecessary reduction of wheat.
(D) ventilation cooling:
Ventilation is the use of outside air to replace the air in the grain piles to improve the ventilation of the stored grain. There are two kinds of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation. In the summer season, when wheat in high temperature storage is in season, due to the higher grain temperature and lower temperature, with the effect of after-ripening period, the wheat will have a strong respiratory activity, and it is easy to produce â€œsweatâ€ phenomenon. Wheat on the top layer of grain piles is likely to cause condensation and make grain easier. The temperature in the upper layer of the heap rises, and the moisture increases. If the temperature is not cooled in time, it will produce mildew and a serious phenomenon of "kick-up." Therefore, each grain storage unit must strengthen its warehouse management during the season transition, use favorable opportunities, open windows and doors at the right time, often turn the grain surface or open the ditch, seize the time for ventilation, reduce the grain temperature, and ensure the safety of grain storage.
For natural ventilation in conventional storage, because it does not consume energy, in order to obtain more ventilation opportunities, in the case of dry weather, it is generally only required that the temperature be lower than the grain temperature for ventilation.
For mechanical ventilation, the conditions for allowing cooling and ventilation are: the difference between the average grain temperature and the air temperature should be greater than or equal to 8Â°C, and the absolute humidity of the grain pile balance under instant grain temperature should be greater than or equal to the absolute atmospheric humidity. The conditions for ending the cooling and ventilation are: the temperature difference between the average grain temperature and the air temperature should be less than or equal to 4Â°C; the temperature gradient of the grain pile is less than or equal to 1Â°C/meter of the grain layer thickness; and the moisture gradient of the grain pile is less than or equal to 0.3Â°C/meter grain layer thickness.
Fourth, food inspection:
During the custody of food, due to its own metabolism, damage from insects, molds, and bacteria, coupled with environmental changes, a series of changes will occur in the grain-pile ecosystem. Therefore, all grain storage units must strictly implement the grain inspection system and, in line with the principle of â€œthere must be warehouses, must have food, and inspections must be thorough,â€ carefully inspect and â€œthree days and one small inspection, five days and one large inspection, The investigation of the grain inspection system, which was conducted every day during the rainy days and the rainy days, was carried out. The main scope of grain inspection is: grain moisture, grain temperature, insect pests, and condensation during the seasonal transition of the grain piles. For the inspection results, it is necessary to fill out the inspection records of the grain conditions on the basis of the standards. The person-in-charge in charge of the business must sign the grain inspection record every month to ensure the authenticity of the food inspection.
(a) temperature and humidity check:
Using the food temperature measurement tools installed in the warehouse, the food grain temperature and humidity were regularly monitored. The content of the patrol survey includes grain temperature, storage temperature, temperature, and the relative humidity of the atmosphere inside and outside the warehouse, which is commonly referred to as "three temperatures and two humidity."
The determination of grain temperature inspection points must be considered representative, generally divided into upper, middle and lower levels. The depth of each layer depends on the height of the grain pile and the shape of the pile. The number of points on each floor depends on the size of the grain piles. Generally speaking, if the bulk grain surface is less than 100 square meters, the three distribution points will be 9 points on the 3rd floor; the five points on 100 square meters will be distributed at the 15th floor. (Frequently speaking three points 15 points).
If the food condition is stable and safe, in the cold season, patrol once in 3-5 days;
If food conditions are not stable, in the hot season, new storage grain must be surveyed once a day;
If the grain temperature rises too fast and the temperature measurement point is unstable or there are doubts about the measured value, the temperature measurement tool should be calibrated first, and it should be detected at the scene. If necessary, the food surface must be turned to perform visual inspection. Smell its smell," will eliminate the abnormal situation in the bud.
(b) Moisture inspection:
According to the area and height of the warehouse, with reference to the arrangement of the temperature measurement points, a random sample is taken at a vertical distance of 3 meters, and a sample of each mixture is taken from each floor, each sample being no less than 1 kilogram. The sampling layer shall also include grain layers of 5-30 cm from the grain surface and the bottom of the warehouse, and be set at the sun-facing surface of the warehouse, 5-30 cm from the back wall of the warehouse, and the center of the warehouse. A total of 6 sampling points are used. The sample is not less than 1 kg.
Moisture content was measured once in three months in the low temperature season and once in the high temperature season; sampling and testing were performed at any time for changes in grain conditions and abnormalities, and the cause was carefully ascertained to prevent mildew.
(c) Pest inspection:
Sampling takes a combination of fixed sites and pest-prone sites. If the grain surface area is within 100 square meters, 5 sampling points shall be set; grain surface area shall be 100-500 square meters with 10 sampling points; and if the area is more than 500 square meters, 15 sampling points shall be set. For a heap height of 2 meters or less, the grain surface is generally sampled, and two-story samples with a height of 2 meters or more are set up. In the hot season, sampling should be done in the upper part of the north shady area. In the cold season, sampling should be done in the middle and lower parts of the south sun area. Sample no less than 1 kilogram per point.
Pest inspection sampling is not the same as moisture sampling. It is not a mixed sample but a sample taken at each sampling point.
The calculation of pest density is based on the highest number of pests in the sample taken representing the total pest density.
According to pest growth and development at different temperatures. The pest inspection period can be set as:
The grain temperature is below 15Â°C and checked once every three months;
When the grain temperature is 15-20Â°C, check it once every month;
Grain temperature is checked every 15 days at 20-25Â°C;
When grain temperature is above 25Â°C, check every seven days.
(four) quality inspection:
The inspection of grain quality shall be conducted twice a year according to the items and requirements stipulated in the quality control index of grain reserves. The principle time shall be tested once each year in April and October. The â€œwrongâ€ wheat should be sold and rotated in time. The "aged" wheat should be reported promptly.
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