Appropriate storage and disease resistant varieties should be selected for timely harvesting. Judging whether the fruit is ripe or not can be determined from the following aspects: When the fruit is no longer growing, the shoulders are rounded, the skin color is darkened; the fruit is cut, the seed shell is hardened, and the pulp is light yellow; the fruit appears half in the water Sinking or sinking phenomenon; when a tree has fallen fruit naturally mature. The fruits used for storage should pick eight mature fruits on sunny morning. During fruit harvesting, cut fruit and cut one by one and wash it with clear water to remove the mucus coming out of the fruit stem cut. If the mucilage is not removed in time, it will flow to the peel and cause decay, and it will also stimulate the skin of the staff. When harvesting, it should be handled gently to prevent excessive vibration and collision.
At the temperature of 28Â°C to 32Â°C, the mangoes' ripening speeds of all cultivars were relatively fast. The average fruit ripening reached 3 to 8 days, and the fruits of the third-grade ripening could not be stored. Therefore, the mangoes should be stored in time after harvesting.
Second, before storage
After the mangoes are harvested, they are piled in the room for a day and night to make them perspire and cool. Then they are rinsed with water and then dried and then soaked in hot water at 52Â°C-54Â°C for 8-10 minutes and with 1OOOppm Tecdo (or promethine, heterologous bacteria). Microbial, iprodione) soaked in fruit to prevent the occurrence of anthrax. If soaked with 100ppm gibberellin solution for 10min, it can both be preserved and delayed ripening. There have also been reports of radiation killings during pre-treatment.
After the fruit is disinfected, the fruit surface is wiped or dried to remove the damaged and rotted fruit and packaged in stages.
Third, storage technology
The suitable ripening temperature of mango is 21Â°C to 24Â°C, and it is difficult to obtain good results above or below this range. Temperatures in excess of this range will cause the after-ripening fruit flavor to be abnormal, such as a temperature of less than 15.6 Â°C and 18.3 Â°C, although the fruit can also be a good coloring. However, the pulp has a sour taste and needs to be matured for 2 to 3 days at a temperature of 21Â°C to 24Â°C to increase its sweetness and improve its quality. Several newer mango storage methods are introduced.
1, milk he coating (EC) storage method
Mango is a respiratory peak fruit. Under suitable conditions (25Â°C, 2Â°C, 85Â°C, 5% RH), its postharvest maturation will be completed within 6-8 days. Mangoes are also vulnerable to fungi, bacteria, and anthrax and fruitflies.
Fruit ripening depends on three factors: water transpiration; maturation and aging rates; microbial and insect infections. The formation of a semi-permeable membrane on the surface of the fruit layer can selectively control the penetration of O2CO2 and water vapor and delay the post-harvest physiological activities; it also limits the invasion of insects and microorganisms, and the cost of the Xu layer method over other storage methods. Low, simple operation.
The use of polyvinyl sucrose ester, carboxymethyl cellulose salts and mono- and diacylglycerols to prepare emulsions, coating treatment can delay the ripening of mangoes. A recent commercial treatment called PrimaFiesh's wax film prolongs the 6-day loan period for mangoes. The emulsion coating solution prepared by the following method can prolong the mango ripen for at least 20 days.
(1) Preparation of Xu layer liquid
The raw material is 50% Bx maltodextrin (DE=10), 3% CMC--Na (low viscosity), 10% ester fatty acid (Siban, HLB=6), propylene glycol, and the like.
The above raw materials were mixed and electromagnetically stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (preservative) was added for refrigerated storage.
(2) Coating treatment
The coating solution was heated to 40Â°C and sprayed onto the mango to be preserved, then stored at 15Â°C and 25Â°C, and the relative humidity was 80% to 85%.
(3) Conclusion evaluation
After drying under suitable conditions (252Â°C, 805%RH) for 20min, the coating liquid formed a thin and smooth film on the surface of mango. The thickness of the film was 120l0um and it was easy to clean without residue. The weight loss at 24Â°C for 24 days was 8% to 9%, and slight peel wrinkling was observed at 15Â°C. The storage rate of CO2 stored at 25Â°C slightly increased from 54 mgCO2/Kg and h at td to 62m8CO2/Kg,h at 24 days. Storage at 15Â°C decreased from 54 mg CO2/Kg, h to 49 mg Co2/Kg, h. Indicates that the coating can inhibit post-harvest breathing intensity.
During storage, the pH value did not change much. Both the water-soluble solids and alcohol-insoluble solids had less change than the non-xylene layer, and the color protection was better. It may be that the surfactant layer Xu can hinder the release of CO2 from the peel. The amount of CO2 accumulated in tissues containing chlorophyll reached levels that inhibit chlorophyll synthesis.
Therefore, this hydrophobic coating can impede the gas exchange between mango and the surrounding environment. It can reduce the basal metabolism of mango and inhibit the biochemical reactions of ripening of fruits and vegetables (because the energy required for biochemical reactions is reduced). This thin layer can also prevent the invasion of harmful microorganisms without affecting the health and safety of fruits and changes in chemical composition, and can extend the maturity of mango at least 20 days.
2, radiation irradiation storage method
Food ray irradiation is a symbol of the peaceful use of atomic energy after World War II. Following the traditional methods of preservation, it is another kind of new technology and method of development. For food, it is mainly a highly penetrating beam. Radium rays and Î²-rays are commonly used. The r-rays can be launched with a drill 60 or cesium 137, but the cobalt 60 has a larger energy and longer half-life than the cesium 137. During the sunshine, the intensity of the radiation is almost constant, which is relatively safe and reliable. Foods in large packaging containers can also be irradiated from the outside. Therefore, Cobalt 60 is commonly used in production.
Mangoes were irradiated with 25,000 rad to inhibit the activation of polyphenol oxidase and the activity of pectinolytic enzymes during ripening. Delay the maturity period by 16d. Both the Philippines and Indiaâ€™s mango exports use radiation to kill insects.
Mangoes irradiated with 60 Krad have no obvious damage to Vc and carotene. For example, radiation treatment at low temperature and low oxygen can preserve more nutrients.
The mangoes were treated with radiation at 13Â°C and matured 40 days later than the control and stored at 20Â°C delayed for 10 days.
The rad ray radiation equipment must be equipped with a roller source (such as cobalt 60), a radiation source storage device (storage wells), a radiation source driving device, an article automatic transport device, and an irradiation room with protective shielding.
3, modified atmosphere storage method (CA)
Many fruits can be stored in the laboratory in a controlled atmosphere, but only a few fruits (for example, apples, pears) have been commercially used. The CA storage of mango differs depending on the variety, for example, Rad mango in Thailand is stored under 4% CO2 and 6%O2, 13Â°C and 94% RH for 25 days . A comprehensive analysis of its weight loss, hardness, color, P(H), titratable acid, total solids, and sensory evaluations resulted in the optimal CA storage conditions for Rad mango. It helps to extend the shelf life and ensure that the quality index changes little.
4. Modified atmosphere packaging and storage (MAP)
This method needs to consider storage temperature, packaging materials, oxygen absorbers and ethylene adsorbents. Israeli scholar SFishman et al. established a mathematical model for the MAP storage method of mangoes with porous film packaging. This model aims to optimize the MAP conditions of mangoes, which was established by calculating the O2 concentration and RH in mango MAP storage. The mathematical model includes equations describing mango respiration, transpiration, and permeation, and their effectiveness has been experimentally confirmed. Experiments and predictions show that the effect of the pore area of â€‹â€‹the packaging film on O2 concentration greatly exceeds that of RH, which makes it possible to adjust the RH within the package to reduce fruit weight loss and maintain the gas content required for the minimum physiological activity of mango. The model indicates the effect of O2 concentration, RH, and packaging film parameters on the storage of the packaging bag. It will provide the best O2 concentration and RH value for MAP storage.
Another study reported that a 0.06mm thick polyethylene bag was used to seal and at the same time an appropriate amount of deoxidizer and ethylene sorbent was added to the bag so that the oxygen concentration was 3% to 5% and the CO2 was 2.5% to 5%. It can be kept for about 30 days at 10Â°C and 12Â°C.
5, vacuum storage method
In the United States, mangoes are stored at a reduced pressure of 19.6 kPa (approximately 147 mmHg) RH: 98% to 10%, and in a 13Â°C environment, the storage for three weeks results in a bright green color. Fruit hardness and good fruit string are higher. Due to the technical difficulty of this method and the high cost of keeping fresh, it has not yet been commercially applied.
6, electronic preservation technology
Electronic preservation storage is the use of high-voltage discharge, in the storage of fruit, vegetables and other food space produce a certain concentration of ozone and air negative ions, so as to achieve a preservation of fruits and vegetables a device. From the point of view of molecular biology, fruits and vegetables can be considered as a kind of biological battery. When the air is charged by charged ions, the charge in fruits and vegetables will play a neutral role. Physiological activities like the phenomenon of suspended animation, respiratory intensity and therefore slow down, organic matter consumption is also relatively reduced, so as to achieve the purpose of storage and preservation.
When high-voltage direct current is applied between two electrodes, a uniform electric field is generated between the two parallel electrodes, and the electric field strength can be achieved by adjusting the power supply voltage and the distance between the electrodes. According to the current analysis and information, water is the medium for biochemical reactions, and water itself is a liquid with a certain cluster structure. Water molecules and water molecules are always in a constant association. Macromolecules and dissociation are among the dynamic equilibrium of small molecular clusters. It is very likely that the application of an electrostatic field will break this equilibrium and change the structure of water molecules. This will inevitably affect the speed of the use of the enzyme molecules that catalyze the reaction in the activation process of water molecules in the substrate reaction, so as to achieve the purpose of preservation.
The preservation of high-voltage electrostatic fields is an aspect of electromagnetic micro energy technology. It is a process that uses electromagnetic field micro-energy to provide energy-saving, high-efficiency, and high-quality treatment of foods to obtain high-efficiency food preservation quality. For the application of the respiration-refractory storage of fruits, its application is relative. For modern food preservation and processing technologies, such as refrigeration, gas conditioning, control of physiologically active substances, chemical preservation, and radiation preservation, it has the advantages of low investment, low energy consumption, and high preservation quality. Therefore, the development prospect is broad.
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