Matters needing attention when processing mushrooms

The mushroom cultivation history of Biyang County in our province has a long history and is known throughout the country. Mushrooms are known as "mountains" and are rich in nutrition and delicious. Their dried products (commonly known as dried mushrooms) are divided into mushroom, mushroom, thick mushroom and thin mushroom. However, due to the fact that the current drying and other technologies can not keep up, there are problems such as poor coloration, weak fragrance, and unsightly appearance of mushrooms in dry products of dried mushrooms, which seriously affect the value of goods. If shiitake mushrooms are processed well, they can increase their value nearly 1 times. Let's talk about the key technologies for the processing methods of dried mushrooms: 1. Let the dried mushrooms not spray water to the mushrooms 2 days before harvest and choose sunny weather. When the mushrooms and thick mushrooms mature 5-7, the pellicles are partially broken. ), or when the mushroom and thin mushroom 7-8 are mature (the pellicle has been broken, the cap has not been completely expanded, there is a little inward roll, the pleats have all been elongated, and the white color turns to yellow-brown or dark brown). . Hold the mushroom stem base by hand and gently swirl the mushroom body. The harvested fresh mushrooms are graded according to size and thickness, and are put on the drying screen with the handle down (the screen can be covered with a shade net to absorb more heat). The drying screen is inclined at an angle of 30 degrees with the ground, and the incline is facing the sun, receiving direct sunlight, and adjusting the orientation of the drying screen as the sun moves. The fresh mushrooms can be dried in 3-5 sunny days. The shorter the drying time, the better the quality of dried mushrooms. At this time, the water content of the mushroom is about 20%, which is still higher than the standard moisture content of 13% or less of the dried mushroom, and the flavor of the mushroom must be produced after baking at a temperature of 50° C. or higher. Therefore, it is a more economical and effective method for drying mushrooms to dry them first and then dry them with hot air. Second, the performance of the drying method drying equipment must meet the requirements of the drying dehydration process of the mushroom. The temperature and the flow rate of the dry air can be adjusted according to the process needs. At present, the drying box is mainly used as the drying equipment of the mushroom. Harvested mushrooms should be promptly sorted and moved into the oven within 3-4 hours. According to the size and thickness of the mushroom body, the umbrellas are classified on the open and umbrellas, and the pleats are uniformly arranged upwards or downwards. The large, wet and thick mushrooms are placed in the middle of the sieve, and the small mushrooms and thin mushrooms are placed on the upper layer. Poor mushrooms and mushroom stalks are placed in the bottom layer. The whole drying process is divided into four stages: (1) The pre-drying stage. That is, when the shiitake mushroom is in the box, the temperature is controlled at 30-50°C and the moisture is reduced to 75%. The onset temperature of shiitake mushroom harvested in sunny days can be 40°C, and the rough dehydration time can be 3-4 hours. For shiitake mushrooms harvested on rainy days, the initial temperature is 30°C and the rough dehydration time should be 4-5 hours. Due to the high humidity of the mushrooms, the cells have not yet been killed, the temperature cannot be lower than 35°C for a long time, and large inlets and outlets should be opened so that the moisture can be discharged as soon as possible and the temperature rises evenly, rising by 1-2°C per hour. (2) Drying stage. The moisture of the fruit body continues to evaporate, and gradually enters the hardened state, the appearance tends to be fixed, and the degree of drying reaches about 80%. The temperature gradually rises from 50°C to 55°C and it takes 8-10 hours. At this stage, the inlet and outlet should be reduced. (3) Post-drying stage, also known as setting stage. Mushroom water evaporation speed slows down, the mushroom body begins to harden, decides the dry mushroom shape, the temperature maintains at 55 °C, takes 3-4 hours. (4) The completion phase. The temperature in the oven rises from 55°C to 60°C, and it can be killed for about 1 hour until the humidity inside the mushroom is consistent with the surface humidity, the water content is 11-13%, the color is smooth, and the drying is completed. Third, pay attention: (1) fresh mushrooms can not be stacked, so as not to affect the mushroom drying speed and uniformity of dehydration between the mushrooms. (2) Drying operations should be carried out on a sunny day. The relative humidity of sunny days is low, which helps to reduce the drying time. (3) Drying program should be set according to different conditions of fresh mushrooms. For example, the pleats of thin mushrooms and rain gourd mushrooms are often in the form of lodging. Such mushrooms can be pre-dried for sun exposure (to the degree that the vegetative cover is shiny and the pleats are raised), and then transferred to the conventional drying treatment. (4) Strictly control the drying temperature in each stage. The temperature is low, and the dried mushroom pleats are white; the temperature is too high and the pleats are too yellow or brown. During the drying process, the temperature must not be too high or low, otherwise the dried mushrooms will have a dull surface. (5) Dried mushrooms are properly bagged after resurgence. Immediately after drying, bagging will make the dried mushroom broken and affect the appearance. It should be graded and bagged after appropriate rejuvenation of dried mushrooms, and the dried mushrooms should also be prevented from being crushed during storage.

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