The edible mechanization production mechanization technology is a technique for completing the cultivation of edible fungi by mechanical means. It integrates excellent strains, cultivation techniques and mechanization techniques, and is an edible fungus that is transformed into manual operation for mechanical operation and variable dispersion operation for intensive management. Production technology.
First, the advantages of mechanized production technology
1. Production advantage. The use of mechanized edible fungus production can greatly improve labor productivity, generally can improve work efficiency by 3-25 times, and can also increase the level of specialized production. In a shorter period of time, more products are produced and are not affected by the season.
2. Quality advantage. Mechanized production has high degree of specialization, stable production, superior purification conditions and strict management system. Compared with manual production, the quality has obvious advantages: (1) Sawdust crushing particle size meets requirements, mixing uniformity is good, bottling and bagging tightness It is better than manual production; (2) It can avoid the backlog of bacteria and aging, and the product pollution rate is low; (3) Mechanical baking improves the quality of products and can reach export quality standards.
3. Economic advantage. Through mechanical means, a lot of manpower, material resources and various expenses can be saved. Through mechanical slicing, pulverization and other processes, the agricultural and forestry auxiliary materials that can only be used as fuel have become the main materials for the production of edible fungi, achieving a substantial increase in products, and the advantage of changing resources is the economic advantage of commodities.
4. Practical advantages. The scale of production scale can be determined according to the comprehensive factors such as capital, sales volume, business mode, technical strength and resource conditions. It can be used as a semi-mechanical production line in a single machine or in combination. The investment ranges from several thousand yuan to several hundred thousand yuan. Individual and unit production has obvious practical promotion value.
Second, the production process and technical points
The main content of mechanization technology for edible fungi production is the branching, trimming strips, sawdust and shavings, corn cob, corn stalk, wheat straw, straw, peanut shell, cottonseed hull, etc., which are mechanically processed into crumbs and added. Auxiliary materials, such as wheat bran, rice bran, bean cake, peanut cake, sucrose, gypsum, calcium carbonate, magnesium sulfate, etc., mechanically seeded, bagged, sterilized, inoculated, cultivated, harvested, processed to form a complete set of mechanization Technical specifications for production and cultivation.
1. Slicing process. The selected wood is preferably less than 12 cm in diameter and not more than 2.5 m in length. In order to facilitate the invasion of fungi microorganisms, fermentation and the formation of organic acids for the growth of mycelium, the mushroom wood must be sliced â€‹â€‹and processed after a certain period of natural drying. The maximum cross-sectional dimension (length Ã— width) of the wood chips is 60 mm Ã— 20 mm, the thickness is (4 Â± 2) mm, and the water content is preferably 20% or more. It is best to choose the cutting place on the drying field so as to spread the cut wood chips in time and reduce the amount of transportation.
2. The crushing process. The cut wood chips are air-dried and pulverized when the water content is about 15%. Edible fungi have certain requirements on the thickness of the culture material. If the pulverization is too fine, not only the productivity of pulverization is low, but also the permeability of the culture material is poor, which affects the proliferation of hyphae; if the culture material is too thick, the plastic bag will be pierced, causing miscellaneous The bacteria invade the infection, and the culture material is not easily compacted, and the water is easily lost during cultivation. After testing, as the mushroom culture material, the diameter of the sieve hole is preferably 2.5-2.8 mm when the pulverizer is pulverized; when smashing the straw and the seed shell culture material, the diameter of the sieve hole is preferably 5-7 mm.
3. Stirring process. The uniformity of stirring directly affects the growth of edible fungi. The specific method is to weigh the material according to the prescribed formula ratio. When stirring, the main material is first put into the stirring chamber, and the solid material with less content is uniformly input in the axial direction, and the material soluble in water is soluble. Dissolve in water first, then add a certain amount of water and stir evenly in a blender.
4. Bag making process. Bagging is generally suitable for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes, black fungus, etc. The specifications of the plastic bag (bottom Ã— height) are generally 17 cm Ã— 35 cm, and the thickness is 0.04-0.05 mm, which can be sterilized by atmospheric pressure. Ethylene plastic bag or autoclavable polypropylene plastic bag. The stick is suitable for the cultivation of mushrooms and white fungus.
5. Sterilization process. The sterilization process is generally divided into autoclaving and atmospheric sterilization. Autoclaving is mainly used for the sterilization of bacteria bags of mother seeds, original seeds, cultivars and polypropylene plastic bags with cotton plugs. Atmospheric sterilization is also called soil steaming stove, sterilization stove sterilization, used for sterilization of polyethylene bags. The bacteria bag should be discharged reasonably in the stove, and a certain gap should be left between the bags to make the steam flow smoothly, and the bags are evenly heated. The sterilization temperature must be maintained at 100 Â° C for 10-20 hours to achieve the sterilization effect.
6, drying process. The drying process is also called dehydration process. Edible fungi can be stored directly in fresh or cold storage, or can be stored dehydrated. When using the dryer to dehydrate, you must master the parameters such as temperature, time, air supply, and moisture release to prevent baking, baking or decay.
Third, processing equipment configuration
The processing equipment used by ordinary farmers or small edible fungi plants includes a branch slicer, a pulverizer, a blender, a bottling (bag) machine, a sterilization and sterilization device, and a drying device.
1. Branch slicer. There are two types of ZQ-600 and MG-700. The working principle is as follows: the pulley is driven by the power during the working, the cutter head is rotated by the main shaft, the flying knife is arranged on the cutter head, and the bottom knife is arranged on the feeding inlet. The wood is fed from the feed port and cut into chips by the flying knife. Due to the inertial force and the suction and throwing action of the upper blade of the cutter head and the cutting action of the bottom knife, the chip is quickly thrown out from the discharge port below the body. The flying knife should be adjusted in the same plane before use. The distance between the flying knife and the cutter plane is 4-5 mm (ZQ-600 type), 6-10 mm (MG-700 type), flying knife and bottom knife. The gap is 0.3-0.8 mm.
2, the crusher. The crusher mainly has 9FT-40 type and 9FQS-40 type. In addition to crushing wood chips, it can also crush crop straw and feed. The working principle is as follows: the power is driven by the pulley drive spindle to rotate at 3500-3600r/min, and the wood piece enters the crushing chamber from the feeding inlet, and is broken by the high-speed rotating hammer piece, and is thrown to the circumferential tooth plate and then broken again. Then it collides with the discharge plate and is bounced back, and is hit again by the hammer. After repeated attacks and impacts, the chips or materials are pulverized into small particles. Under the action of a high-speed rotating exhaust fan, the pulverized wood chips are sucked through the sieve, and are sent out of the machine from the discharge port, and the coarse wood chips that fail to pass. Stay in the crushing room and continue to smash.
3, more use WJ-70 type raw material mixer. The machine can stir 100 kg of aqueous culture material each time, stirring for 2 minutes each time, operating 8-10 times per hour, and stirring the culture material 800-1000 kg / hour. When working, it is necessary to put the mixed raw materials and water into the drum, cover the cylinder cover, close the clutch, and the stirring shaft starts to rotate. The 8 stirring plates arranged on the shaft are arranged in the drum and the animal material is made in the drum. Flip up and down and axial reciprocating motion to achieve a uniform mixture.
4, bagging (bottle) machine. The bagging (bottle) machine is currently the most widely used edible fungus machine, and has a simple structure, convenient use, high productivity and low price. Pay attention to the diameter and length of the stirrup when using it to meet the needs of different plastic bag specifications. The working principle is as follows: after the culture material enters the hopper, due to the self-weight of the culture material and the action of the agitator, it is sent to the auger sleeve, and the culture material is pushed out of the auger sleeve by the spiral auger sleeve into the plastic bag.
5. Disinfection and sterilization equipment. In the production process of edible fungi, the equipment used for sterilization and sterilization has a pressure cooker, a direct heating sterilization stove, and an input steam sterilization chamber.
(1) Pressure cooker. Can be divided into three types of portable, vertical and horizontal. It consists of a body, a safety valve, a bleed valve, a pressure gauge, a thermometer, a lid and fastening bolts. The working principle is: direct heating outside the pressure cooker, when the water boils in the closed pot, the steam can not escape, and as the steam pressure in the pot increases continuously, the temperature also rises continuously, thereby achieving the purpose of high temperature sterilization.
(2) Direct heat sterilization. Also known as soil steaming stoves, atmospheric pressure stoves, such stoves are easy to make, low cost, easy to promote. The stove is not demanding, as long as fuel is saved.
(3) Input steam sterilization chamber. This facility is used in larger-scale edible fungi plants where bottles or bags are placed on trolleys and pushed into a sterilization chamber where they are sterilized by steam.
6, drying dehydration equipment. There are many types and shapes of drying equipment. Generally, there are dryers, hot air ovens, dewatering machines, drying and dehydrating rooms or simple drying chambers.
Label: Edible mushroom production machinery
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