Northern Shed Tea Production and Processing Technology

Rizhao Green Tea is a successful example of the “Southern tea moving northwards”, and the planted area accounts for more than 50% of the total tea plantation area in Shandong Province. It has a unique quality of "taste delicious, strong aroma, and brewing resistance" and is well known at home and abroad. In recent years, with the adjustment of agricultural structure, and as an important part of facility agriculture, the greenhouse tea production has formed a certain scale, which has become an important industry for the development of the pillar industries of the tea industry and farmers' income. The production and processing techniques for greenhouse cultivation in greenhouses are now described as follows: 1. Selection of sites for construction 1.1 The site selection of sunshine is located at 35 to 38 degrees north latitude, and is located at the north limit of the growth of tea trees. In this area south of latitude, the park can be planted to grow tea trees. The principle of land selection: First, the leeward sunny slope zone. The second is that the soil should be thick so that the tea tree can be rooted. Third, the soil pH is 4 to 6.5. 1.2 The construction of greenhouses generally uses a steel frame without a single-slope half-arched greenhouse. The length of the shed is 60 to 100 m, the span is 7 to 9 m, and the ridge height is 2.4 to 2.8 m. The shed film should be made of a drip-free film with a high light transmittance, and the shed cover should be covered with a 5 cm thick heat-insulated grass curtain. 2 Cultivation points 2.1 After deep-buried fertilization, the soil in the shed shall be deep-turned and fertilized. The depth of ploughing shall be more than 80cm, and then the ditch shall be formed according to the planting baseline. The width and depth of each groove shall be 40cm. Apply 5,000 kg of mixed fertilizer and 50 kg of phosphate fertilizer, mix the soil and fertilizer, and fill and level it. 2.2 Moderate dense planting should choose Longjing 43, Baixuzao, Xinyang No. 10 and other cold-resistant ability, suitable for making tea varieties. In order to see the benefits early, you can directly use tea transplanted outside the greenhouse. Single and double rows of dense planting were carried out. Single rows were planted with a row spacing of 80 to 100 cm, and the distance between holes was 33 cm. Double rows were planted with a large row spacing of 80 to 100 cm. Small row spacing was 35 to 40 cm and the distance between holes was also 33 cm. 3 greenhouse management 3.1 fertilizer management and fertilization to achieve "foot-based", "more chase", "usually spray." "Footbase" refers to the application of base fertilizer before and after the fall of white dew, the depth of the planting line in the center, the width of each 25cm wide, 3000kg of soil per acre soil fertilizer or cake fertilizer plus 30kg of phosphate fertilizer. "More chase" means that topdressing should be carried out after each round of harvesting, and the standard amount of pure nitrogen 12kg and purified phosphorus pure potassium 3kg for each harvested 100kg dry tea should be applied under the canopy for ditching. “Chang spray” refers to the frequent spraying of foliar fertilizer during the growth of tea plants. Spray the canopy as early as possible with a 0.5% urea solution or a tea tree diluted 180-200 times. Tea leaves are used as objects, and their photosynthesis requires a large amount of water, and ensuring moisture supply is an important measure for obtaining high yields. The watering of greenhouse tea should be based on the principle of “less spraying, ground irrigation,” and the water should be added at any time. Micro-irrigation technology is better. 3.2 The temperature management daytime shelf temperature 22 ~ 28 °C, more than 30 °C should be ventilation and cooling at night to maintain 10 ~ 15 °C, below 5 °C should be warm protection. In addition, the tea tree hi humid and humid environment, the relative humidity of the air should be maintained at 70% to 80%, in the case of high temperature and strong light conditions, shade measures should be taken. 3.3 Pest control Tea plantation pests most winter hibernation, it is not a threat to the greenhouse winter tea structure, do not need to apply drugs. For some diseases such as tea leaf spot, etc., benzdione, carbendazim and other solutions may be sprayed to prevent and protect during stoppage. It is absolutely forbidden to use highly toxic, highly toxic, and high-residue pesticides in tea gardens to ensure the production of pollution-free tea that meets the standards. 4 Harvested and fried greenhouse tea is of high quality, marketable, and high in price. Most of them are made of high quality tea. Harvesting should be done in a timely manner, with proper methods, strict standards, and appropriate retention. On this basis, an "early" word is highlighted. When 5% of new shoots on the awning reach the picking standard (1 leaf, 1 bud, early show), they are immediately picked. Tea can be made into different shapes according to market demand. Rizhao regions are often made into curved, flat and needle-shaped tea. Each styling has its own unique manufacturing process, but it is roughly divided into four parts: First, it is dried in a booth. Spread on bamboo mat or concrete ground for 2 to 4 hours, the thickness of 3 ~ 5cm, the fresh leaf moisture content can be reduced to about 70%. The second is to kill. In order to improve the quality of killing, to achieve killing and killing, we must follow the principle of “high-temperature killing, first high and low, shaking and boring combination, many shaking less stuffy, old leaves kill, old leaves and tender kill”. The third is modeling. Including manual modeling and machine modeling. The fourth is dryness. Reduce the moisture in the tea to about 5%. Commonly used tea making machines include 6CSM-30 type tea tea-holding machine, 6CRM-25 type tea kneading machine, 6CH-3 type automatic tea drying machine, 6CD-42 type tea multi-function machine, all of which are the development of tea mechanization technology. The preferred model is worth promoting.

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