With the rapid development of freshwater fisheries and the continuous advancement of fish farming technology, fish production has increased substantially. How to balance the market of fish products, solve the problem of uneven supply of fish and fish products during the peak season and increase the added value of fish products, so that fish farmers Increasing production and increasing income are issues that people are particularly concerned about. Therefore, the preservation and processing of freshwater fish have drawn increasing attention. Seasoned dried fish is a processed product of freshwater fish made from raw freshwater fish, processed, seasoned, baked, and rolled. It has a simple manufacturing process, rich nutrition, unique flavor, easy to carry and eat, and is well received by consumers. Its processing methods are described below;
First, the process of processing raw materials fish â†’ three to go (de-scale, to viscera, go to the head) â†’ open film â†’ screening â†’ rinsing â†’ drain â†’ seasoning infiltration â†’ spread â†’ drying â†’ exploding tablets (raw dried film) â†’ baking Roasting â†’ Rolling loose â†’ Inspection â†’ Weighing â†’ Packaging (finished product).
Second, the operating point
1. Selection of raw materials: raw fish used to process freshwater fish seasoned fish slices, generally carp, carp, grass carp, carp, etc. The quality of seasoned dried fish is generally directly affected by the freshness of the raw fish, ie raw materials Fresh fish can produce delicious dried fish slices. Therefore, fresh or frozen freshwater fish should be used as raw materials. Requires complete fish body, normal odor and color, tight and elastic meat, the size of raw fish is generally more than 0.5 kg of fish.
2, raw material processing: first fish to scales, and then use a knife to cut the fins on the fish, along the pectoral fin root cut off the head. The viscera of the female is pulled from the thoracic incision and used to remove the ovaries for processing into roe. Then, using a fish handler, the female and male fish are licked, opened, viscerated, de-kidneyed, and endometrium. The abdominal cavity is then brushed with a brush to remove blood smear and black film.
3, open film: open knife with a thin flat long knife, knife sharp, generally from the head and shoulders under the knife with the skin to open thin slices, along the spine ribs on the upper layer open (belly meat is not open) (thick meat 2 mm) , leaving big spurs for his use.
4. Inspection film: The large bone spurs, red meat, black film, and impurities etc. that were included in the opening were detected to keep the fillets clean.
5, rinse: freshwater fish fillets contain more blood, must be rinsed, rinse is the key to improving the quality of the fish. The commonly used rinsing method is to load the fillets into the bowl, dip the baskets into the scrubbing tank, and repeatedly rinse with the circulating water. The conditional processing plant can fill the rinsing tank with tap water, pour the fish fillets, ventilate it with an air compressor to make it roll violently, wash the blood, and rinse the fish pieces with white and light, and the meat quality is good. Then remove the drain.
6. Seasoning: The formula of the seasoning liquid is 100 parts of water, 70-80 parts of sugar, 20-25 parts of refined salt, 20-25 parts of cooking wine and 15-20 parts of MSG. After the seasoning liquid is configured, the fish flakes rinsed and drained are put into seasoning liquid for pickling. With 100 kg of fish fillets, 15 liters of seasoning liquid should be added. Add seasoning liquid to marinate the penetration time of 30-60 minutes, and often turn mixing, seasoning temperature is about 15 Â°C, not higher than 20 Â°C. To make full penetration of the seasoning liquid.
7, the film: the seasoned pickled fish fillets, spread on the curtain or nylon net, placed, the distance between the film and the film must be tight, the sheet must be neat and smooth, and then the fish pieces (small pieces and debris ) Place, such as 3-4 fish fillets, fish fiber pattern to be basically similar, so that the formation of fish fillets beautiful appearance.
8. Drying: Drying with hot air in drying tunnel. When the drying temperature, the fillet temperature is not higher than 35Â°C. It is suitable to be dried to dryness when it is half-dried. It should be kept for 2 hours or so to make the water inside the fillet natural. After the diffusion, it will be moved into the drying tunnel to reach the specified requirements.
9, exposing film: The dried fish pieces from the mesh, that is, sashimi.
10. Baking: Spread the skin of the sashimi down on the conveyor belt of baking machine, bake for 1-2 minutes, the temperature is 180 Â°C, pay attention to the amount of water sprayed on the green sheet before baking. To prevent scalding fish fillets.
11, Rolling and lacing: After baking, the fillets are cooked by lapping machine to obtain cooked fish fillets. When rolled, they must be pulled in the vertical direction of the fish fiber (that is, horizontal rolling). After the second pull-out, the muscle fibers of the fillets are loosened and the area extension is increased.
12. Inspection: After seasoning, the dried seasoned fish slices are peeled off manually, and the remaining bone spurs are detected (thick bones are brittle), and weighing and packing are performed again. Each package contains 8 grams of fish fillets. Polyethylene food bag small package. The product moisture should be 18-20%, good taste.
13, finished rate: 7-8 kilograms of fresh fish finished product 1 kg.
l. Plastic bags: use clean, transparent polyethylene or polypropylene composite film plastic bags. The plastic bag is used for secondary packaging. A large number of small bags are packed into a carton and placed flat. Large and small plastic bag seals must be airtight.
2. Carton: Use a strong, clean, dry, mildew-free single-wall corrugated carton, coated with non-toxic moisture-proof oil. The bottom of the carton and the lid are cemented with adhesive and then glued with the sealing tape.
Fourth, product quality requirements
1. Sensory index: The color of freshwater fish must be yellowish-white and the edge of the freshwater fish should be slightly yellowish. The shape of the fish fillet should be flat and the shape of the fillet is basically intact. The organization requires meat to be loose, chewy, and free of flake. Taste and odor require delicious taste, salty and sweet, with the unique flavor of grilled freshwater fish, and no odor. Fish fillets must not contain impurities.
2. Moisture content: between 17-22% required.
3. Microbiological indicators: pathogens (intestinal pathogens and pathogenic cocci) must not be detected.
5. The finished product of freshwater fish fillets should be placed in a clean, dry, cool and ventilated place. Wood stacking should be applied when stacking finished products in the bottom warehouse. It is advisable that the stacking height is not deformed by the pressure of the carton.