Red grape is also known as Red Earth, Eurasian species. Originated in California, USA, it is a grape variety cultivated by the researchers of California State University in the 70s. Since the introduction of this species in China in 1987, in addition to the two provinces of Heilongjiang and Jilin in the northern region, the other provinces have introduced and cultivated them, especially in the southern part of the northeastern region. The cultivation performance has been excellent in most parts of North China and the northwest, and the fruit quality is excellent. , Late-maturing, storage-resistant, high-yield, is the first choice for the development of grapes, high quality and efficient varieties.
The young red grape has a purple stripe at the top of the young shoot, and the middle and lower parts are green; the annual branch is light brown. Pin tip 3 young leaves reddish, leaf back sparsely villous; adult five-lobed, upper crack engraved deep, shallow undercut engraved, leaves are not back on both sides of the villi, thin leaves, leaf margins more pure, petiole Red (or light red).
2. Fruit traits
Ears are large, long conical, average ear weight 650 grams, maximum ear weight up to 2500 grams. The fruit is round or oval, with an average grain weight of 11-14 grams, and a maximum of 23 grams. The red-fruited vineyards grow loosely and moderately, and are even and uniform; the pericarp is thick and the fruit is dark red; the flesh is brittle and brittle. It can be cut into thin slices, sweet and delicious, pure flavor, soluble solids greater than 16.5%, knife-cut without juice, quality on the extreme. The fruit handle is long, tightly bound with the fruit, and is not easy to crack; the fruit brush is thick, with a very strong growth, strong resistance to pull, and no threshing; the fruit can be transported in long-distance and long-term storage and can be stored until March of the following year.
3. Biological characteristics
Saplings thrive, and the results tend to be normal afterwards. Young trees are easy to grow green and branches mature later. After the shoot matures, the internodes are short, the buds are prominent, and the result rate is about 70%. The result coefficient is 1.3. There is a secondary result habit. The fruit growth period is 100 days. From the bud to the fruit is fully ripe for 135 days. The ripening period is earlier than Longan grapes.
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1. Reasonably build garden
The red viticulture area must have no air, water, and other pollution and have a good water and gas environment. The terrain is relatively high, and it is best to be sunny and ventilated. There are no large buildings around, and the soil is arid and has good conditions for watering.
2. Choose high quality seedlings
(1) No virus. Although the virus disease can not cause the death of the plant in a short time, but it can hinder its growth and development, serious red grape vines can reduce production of 21.5% -65.8%, reduced sugar content, quality decline. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm the cuttings collected by the vineyard without major viruses or the seedlings supplied by the nursery company.
(2) pure varieties. The purity of the variety must be above 98%.
(3) Miao Jianzhuang. Regardless of the self-rooted or grafted seedlings propagated by cuttings, there must be 5-10 old mature segments and correspondingly well-developed winter shoots above the shoot or above the grafting site, and the width of the middle branches should be above 0.7 cm. Roots are good, 0.2 cm thick roots are more than 6; fibrous roots are more distributed.
3. Seedling planting time and methods
(1) Planting time. The northern autumn planting is better than the spring planting. However, in order to protect the safety of the newly planted seedlings, in the cold winter months, if irrigation is convenient, it is best to plant in the spring.
(2) Soil preparation before planting. Before planting, planting trenches with a width of 1 meter and a depth of 0.6-0.8 meters were excavated according to the row spacing (2.5 meters on the fence and 4.5-5 meters on the scaffold). A mixture of organic matter (grass, chopped corn sticks, fallen leaves, sawdust, etc.) and soil (1:1 - 1:2) was backfilled from the bottom of the trench to about 30 cm from the ground, and then fully flooded. After the soil is submerged, it is filled to the ground with a mixture of decomposed manure (4000-5000 kg/mu) and soil. For planting seedlings in the spring, these preparations should be completed in the autumn of the previous year.
(3) Planting methods. Before planting, each seedling should be selected and refurbished. All the seedlings that meet the quality specifications are usually 3-4 full-reserved buds on the ground, and the roots are cut off by bruises and mildews. The above-ground shoots are immersed for 2 to 3 minutes with 5 degrees lime sulfur or 200 times Formamide arsenic to eliminate the shoots. The pathogen contains pathogens and pests.
In a pre-prepared planting line, excavate 30 cubic centimeters of planting pits every 1.2 meters, and add 0.3 kg of urea and 0.2 kg of diammonium per plant. After the seedlings enter the pits, align the direction and stretch the root system to fill the soil. Step on it and lift it gently to make the root system in close contact with the soil. Planting depth to the base of the shoots 1-2 buds into the soil is appropriate. After planting watered. After a few days, the mulching film (thickness of 0.8-1.0) is kept warm and moisture-retaining so that the young seedlings thrive.
Red grapes in growing season 4. Fertilizer management
We must adhere to moderate and reasonable nitrogen fertilizers and increase the ratio of phosphorus and potassium. During the site preparation, 5000 kg of rotten farmyard fertilizer was applied per acre, nitrogen fertilizer was applied during the growing season; foliar fertilizer was sprayed; 3% of zinc sulfate was sprayed before germination; 0.3-0.5% of urea and 0.2-0.3% of dihydrogen phosphate were sprayed during the growing season. Potassium. Pour 1 water after each fertilization, but not too much, so as to avoid high humidity, increase the incidence.
(1) Shaping and racking: The main vines are kept at about 1.5 meters, and the front ends are evenly distributed with 10 to 12 mother branches each, leaving each branch at a distance of about 20 cm, and arranging 1 vegetative branch, resulting in branch and nutrition. The branches are converted each year, with a small shed, and the height of the greenhouse is 1.5 meters. The growth under the ear canopy can reduce the occurrence of sunburn.
1 Winter Shear: In the first year, it is necessary to re-scissor, leaving 1 mother branch with a length of 20 cm, a main vine with a length of 1 meter in the second year, and 3-5 result branches on the top, leaving 1 ear for each result branch. In the third year, there was a full shed, when the main vine was 1.5-2 meters in length, leaving 10-12 result branches, half of which resulted in 2-3 buds per result branch, cutting vegetative branches and preparation Branches, leaving 1-2 buds cut off.
2 Summer Scissors: With vines tied, the new shoots are fixed on the scaffold and distributed evenly, taking up space reasonably. For the characteristics of the small red leaf, leaving 7-8 leaves topping, can control the growth, increase photosynthetic efficiency. Inflorescences, whole stalks, according to the vegetative branch, the results of the branch of 2:1 principle to remove the inflorescence on the vegetative branch, picking the spike tip, so that the spike shape is inverted trapezoid, when the ear is more crowded, remove some of the fruit.
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Red grape to achieve the requirements of high quality products, so that the ear is beautiful, uniform size of the fruit, bright color, in addition to strengthening the management of cultivation, but also must carry out technical processing of the ear.
1. Sparse red grape grape ear shaping
In order to prevent extension of branches, after the inflorescence appears, according to the overall load on each vine, each extension vine retains at least 2-3 ear, to achieve the purpose of pressure vines, the rest of the branches, all single spikes, one branch Spike, for the recurrence of the second and third ear, should be removed.
2. Ear shaping
(1) Spalling: Eliminating small grains, deformed grains, damaged grains, and fruit grains that are squeezed tightly and tightly on each other. After rinsing, the fruit grains are kept between grains and grains, without crushing each other, 40-50 grains of spikelets are retained, 51-80 grains are in the middle ear, and 80-100 grains of large ears are each weighed to an average of 10-12 grams or 13- 14 grams, this can guarantee 500 grams per ear, 700 grams -1000 grams or so.
(2) Reshaping: Remove shoulders and shoulders, ensure compact ear shape, ear length 12-15 cm best. Shelving grapes, slicing the spikes in the middle of the branches, straightening them to the underside of the racks to make them droop naturally; removing the ear that has not been elongated or very weak at the tip of the ear, ensuring that the whole ear is 12-15 cm and the longest is not more than 20 In centimeters, the whole ear is tightly squeezed, loose but not loose, moderately elastic. In addition, in order to remove the poorly-fertilized, non-developable fruits as soon as possible, and to save nutrients, each fruit ear should be shaken and shaken off after the flowers are cut off.
3. Drug treatment
Before and after the flowering period, in order to prevent the occurrence of gray mold, spray 1 fungicide, 1 week after the spray 1 such as metalaxyl, Capeton and other fungicides, fruit spray and then spray Bordeaux multi.
Red grape bagging bagging is mainly to ensure that the ear is not contaminated by pesticides, dust, soil, etc., to reduce pests and birds and harm to birds, to prevent the ear and blade from rubbing each other and the fruit surface, avoid sunburn or excessive color of the fruit, Too deep to prevent fruit cracking and hail damage. After granules, the ear should be bagged in time. Before bagging, spray 1âˆ¶0.7:200 times of Bordeaux mixture with the fine-grained fruit to kill the bacteria attached to the ear. After the fruit liquid is air-dried, put the paper bag on it and tie it tightly on the paper bag. And fixed it on the old vine, cut a small hole in the lower corners for ventilation. Paper bags are generally 25-30 cm long and 17-20 cm wide, depending on the size of the ear. Paper bags should be made of transparent paper bags that have been immersed in vinegar for use in grapes. Paper bags made of newspapers can also be used.
5. Branch treatment
In order to promote fruit development and increase sugar content of fruits, leave 10-15 leaves on the top of the head for picking. For the second shoot of growth, leave 4-5 slices of ripening leaves as desired and remove the leaves from the branches below the fruiting branches. Lee air and light. After August, two cuts were made in the second quarter of the result branch, spaced 0.5-1 cm apart, and the tendrils were removed in time.
6. Go bag
About 20 days before harvest, the paper bag will be removed to promote sugar and color. After the bag is removed, the ear should be turned over to make the whole color even.
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1. Disinfect the red grape in the warehouse
Before the red grape is put into the warehouse, the warehouse shall be completely sterilized to prevent the breeding of pathogens and pests in the storage warehouse.
2. Fresh-keeping materials
(1) Packaging: Fresh-keeping packaging boxes used for storage of red grapes should be loaded with 5 kg or less and a layer of fruit is appropriate. The materials used are wooden boxes, cartons and plastic boxes.
(2) Fresh-keeping bags: When selecting the fresh-keeping bags, pay attention to the use of special PVC or PE air-conditioning moisture-permeable bags. This kind of bag has the advantages of light condensation or no condensation, small change of grape quality, better green retention of fruit stems, etc. However, PVC bag opening is more difficult, so it should be purchased a month or so in advance, in the bag before the grape bag to leak test.
(3) Preservatives: Research shows that red grapes are more sensitive to oxygen, so CT composite preservatives should be used, including CT2, CT1 and moisture-proof plastic wrap, with a dose of 7 packets of CT2 and 1 packet of CT1 per 5 kg of grapes. , 1 moisture-proof plastic wrap.
3. Harvest and Postharvest Treatment
Grapes used for storage must be harvested in the morning dew and then harvested. 2 days before harvest, special anti-corrosion and preservative agents (food additive type) shall be used to deal with the red spray of the ear, and the storage effect will be better when used together with the preservative tablets after harvesting. Red varieties are not resistant to oxygen, and the use of preservatives before harvest is one of the key technologies for prolonging the storage period and preventing mildew during storage. Grape berries are particularly prone to mechanical injury. Therefore, they must be handled gently during harvesting, packing, transportation, and storage to avoid or reduce the damage caused by bumps, squeezing, friction, and vibration. During the harvest, the most useless hand-pulled fruits and inverted fruit boxes were used. After the harvested grapes, the diseased, injured, green and small fruits should be removed immediately. The ears should be placed gently in the special PVC storage bags for PE or PE grapes. Inside the box, it should be shipped to the pre-cooling room immediately after packing. It is advisable that the grapes receive pre-cooling for no more than 12 hours, and the faster the pre-cooling, the better.
4. Fast pre-cooling and storage
After the grapes are transported to the pre-cooling room, the bag should be opened at -1Â°C to -2Â°C for pre-cooling so that the temperature of the grapes will fall as quickly as possible. When the fruit temperature drops to 0 Â°C within 24 hours, put the preservative into the bag according to the requirements, use double-layer paper to wrap the preservative on the grapes, and then tie the bag mouth, at -0.50. Red grapes were stored at 5Â°C for storage. In order to prevent the injury caused by the release of the preservatives and the first-time mildew in the red grape, the establishment of a pre-cooling warehouse to prevent condensation in the latter stage is one of the key technologies for storage of red grape.
5. Preservation agent usage and use
The red grape must use a single-layer packing box. After pre-cooling, the fresh-keeping agent can be put in after the fruit temperature reaches 0Â°C. To ensure the fruit temperature of 0 Â°C and prevent condensation, the use of composite preservatives, each 5 kg amount of 7 packs of tablet preservatives and a kraft paper packaging preservation pad. The method of use is as follows: first, pad a piece of strong absorbent paper on the top of the grape, the length of the paper is greater than 30cm, and the width is greater than 20cm; place one kraft paper fresh-keeping pad on top of the pad paper, and then tie the tablet preservative with a big needle. Two eye-opening, 7-packs of tablet preservatives were placed on top of the fresh-keeping pad, and then covered with a pad to ensure even release of the drug.
6. Storage management
(1) Temperature management: The storage temperature should be maintained at -0.50.5Â°C during storage, and the storage temperature must be kept stable. The fluctuation of the storage temperature should be less than 0.5Â°C. The fluctuation of the storage temperature can easily cause condensation in the bag and cause fruits. Decay and phytotoxicity occur.
(2) Ventilation and ventilation: Although the respiration metabolism of red grape after harvest is weak under low temperature conditions, ventilation of the warehouse during storage is still very necessary. Ventilation is beneficial to the storage of red grape.
(3) During the storage process, the storage condition of the grapes should be checked frequently. If grape stems are found to have dried up, browned, rotted, or have severe phytotoxicity, they must be sold in time.
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Red grape disease
Red grape (1) Grape white rot: Strengthen cultivation and management, increase disease resistance, cut off diseased parts at any time, remove pathogens, spray at the early stage of disease, and spray once every 15 days at the later stage, spraying 3-5 times. The agent can be used 70% thiophanate-methyl 800 times, 50% carbendazim WP 800 times.
(2) scab disease: to prevent the main, before the germination spray shovel remover, 0.5% pentanol sodium mixed 3 Baume degree of lime sulfur. After the leaf is grown in the growing season and before the fruit is stained, it is sprayed once every 10-15 days. The agent can be used with 1:0.5:200 Bordeaux mixture and 50% withdrawn 800 times.
(3) Anthrax: When the grape berry began to colorize, it was sprayed for the first time, and the drug was stopped one month before picking.
(4) Downy mildew: In late autumn, diseased leaves are collected and burned. Spraying at the early stage of the disease, 1:0.5:200 Bordeaux fluid can be used, and 65% of the same zinc can be used for 500 times.
2. Red Grape Pest
Red grape pests are grapes through the wing moth. Combining the winter shears, the pests were cut off to eliminate the overwintering larvae; the grapes were sprayed 3 times before the budding limestone sulfur and 0.2-0.3 times the limestone sulfur in the growing season. Can effectively prevent the red grape pests.
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