There are 16 essential nutrients during the entire growth and development of red pomelo grapefruit. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which are obtained from water and air, the rest are absorbed from the soil, which requires a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Six kinds of elements such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are called macroelements, and six kinds of elements such as boron, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and molybdenum are called trace elements. In addition, the Red Pomelo Pomelo Body also contains 21 other elements such as chlorine and sodium. According to Zhuang Yimei (1996), red pulped pomelo fruit has the highest potassium content, followed by nitrogen content, followed by calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The trace element content is highest in iron and low in other elements (Table 5-2). ).
Table 5-2 Content of Mineral Elements in Pomelo Fruit of Red Meat (Dry Weight)
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper organs
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (10-6) (10-6) (10-6) (10-6) (10-6)
Peel 1.227 0.068 1.590 0.713 0.158 43.7 10.4 19.5 14.2 8.4
Flesh 1.338 0.211 1.701 0.119 0.088 56.0 2.7 9.9 7.9 8.0
The various elements required for the red-fruited grapefruit are indispensable for the separation of a large number of elements and trace elements, and cannot be substituted for each other in physiological functions. If a certain element is lacking or excessive, it will cause physiological imbalance of red meat honey pomelo. According to the theory of nutrient balance, not only the content of essential mineral nutrients in the tree exceeds the critical value, but more importantly, the relative balance between the elements. Various mineral nutrient elements influence each other in the tree and restrict each other. The increase or decrease of any one kind of element will cause the change of another or several elements, and will affect the plant, affecting the vigor, yield and fruit quality. Therefore, balanced fertilization should be paid attention to in the fertilization management of red meat and pomelo. By adjusting the nutrient balance of the tree, the tree vigor is strong, the yield is high, and the fruit quality is high.
(1) Nitrogen (N)
Nitrogen is the most important element influencing the growth and yield of red pomelo. It is mostly found in organic form, with a small part of nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen present. Nitrogen is an important element that constitutes a living substance, and it is also an important element that affects the metabolic activity and growth results of red meat pomelo plants. It is a major component of Amino Acids and proteins, an essential component of cell membranes, genetic material nucleic acids, chlorophyll, enzymes, Plant hormones, vitamins, etc. also contain nitrogen. On the plants, the nitrogen stored in the leaves was the most, accounting for about 40% of the whole tree, while the branches accounted for about 30%, the roots accounted for about 10%, and the fruits accounted for about 20%. Red-fruited pomelo has a large demand for nitrogen. With sufficient and appropriate nitrogen, it will grow robustly, have a dark green leaf color and normal flowering results. The yield is high and the quality is good.
Within a certain range, the amount of nitrogen applied is directly proportional to the yield. Nitrogen deficiency, abnormal shoots, yellow leaves, fall off, tree weakness, easy to form a "small old tree", the output plummeted. However, when the amount of nitrogen fertilizer is too high, the growth is excessively prosperous, the flowering results are reduced, the fruit turns color, the ripening is late, the skin has a small amount of juice, the meat becomes thicker, and the acidity increases. Therefore, in order to ensure the high yield and quality of red meat pomelo, it is very important to control the appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer.
The application of nitrogen will affect the plant's absorption of other elements. When the nitrogen content in the leaves is high, the calcium and magnesium contents are also high, which inhibits the absorption and utilization of potassium, zinc, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum, and especially phosphorus.
(2) Phosphorus (P)
Phosphorus is an important component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and enzymes, and plays an important role in photosynthesis, respiration, and the formation of fruits and seeds. The distribution in the plants is most abundant in meristems, with more phosphorus accumulating in flower organs, seeds, new shoots, new root growth points, and active cell division. Red-flesh pomelo has less requirement for phosphorus, and the effect of phosphorus on yield is not as obvious as that of nitrogen fertilizer. However, the improvement of fruit quality by phosphate fertilizer has been proved by many studies. Appropriate amount of phosphorus can promote the growth of roots, shoots and flower bud differentiation, increase fruit setting rate, promote fruit ripening, increase skin thinness, increase sugar and reduce acid. Phosphorus deficiency, poor growth of roots and foliage, leaf small and dull, causing early deciduous, rough skin, high juice acid, quality deterioration. Excessive phosphorus affects the absorption of nitrogen, iron, zinc, copper, and boron in the root system.
(3) Potassium (K)
Potassium is closely related to photosynthesis and metabolic processes such as carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, and is an activator of various enzymes. Potassium has a high degree of mobility in plants, often from the old leaves, old mature tissue to the vigorous part of the metabolic activity, such as buds, leaves, apex, formation layer and other meristem output. Red pomelo has a high potassium content in flowers and fruits. Potassium is an important element that determines fruit yield and quality. A suitable amount of potassium can promote the assimilation of plants, so that the growth of tree vigor and branch shoots is normal, fruit set-up increases, fruits increase, the tolerance of the fruit is improved, and the drought resistance, cold resistance and disease resistance of the plants are improved. Within a certain range, increasing the potassium content of plants can increase fruit and increase yield. Potassium deficiency impedes protein synthesis, shoot shoots grow long and fruit grows early. Potassium excess inhibited the growth of the plants, the plants were short and the fruit juices had less crude juice.
In general, the increase of potassium content in the red-pomelo grapefruit orchard will increase the potassium content of the leaves, which will reduce the content of magnesium and calcium, while the deficiency of potassium will increase the content of nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and iron in the leaves.
(4) Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is a component of the pectin substance in the cell, which maintains the stability of the membrane structure. Calcium is required for the continued growth of meristems and is closely related to root growth. The appropriate amount of calcium can regulate the pH of the soil, promote soil biological activity and decomposition of organic matter to release various elements. The calcium mobility in the tree is poor, and the calcium content in old leaves and other parts is high. Calcium deficiency is blocked cell division, causing rot roots, shoot tip, large yellow leaves, small fruit malformations, juice little bitter acid. Excess calcium, small fruit, poor coloration, delayed ripening. Excessive calcium application will reduce the effectiveness of phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and boron.
(5) Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium is a core component of chlorophyll, which is related to the assimilation of plants and is also an enzyme activating substance that maintains the stability of ribosomes and plasma membranes. The leaves, meristems, and seeds of red pomelo are rich in magnesium. The magnesium in the tree is highly mobile, so magnesium deficiency often occurs on old leaves. Mountainous red soil orchards are prone to magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency weakens the tree, leaves defoliation and dry branches, and reduces photosynthesis. Excessive magnesium affects the respiration of the leaves and reduces the potassium and calcium content.
(6) Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is a component of several amino acids and is an essential element of proteins that promote the formation of chlorophyll. Usually in the orchard management process, fertilizing or spraying pesticides such as ammonia sulfate, superphosphate, lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture, etc., sulfur can be added to meet the demand. Sulfur deficiency can cause lack of greens and impede protein synthesis, leading to debilitating tree growth, shoots clustered, and new leaves yellowing to yellow.
(7) Iron (Fe)
Iron is an important element that constitutes many oxidases and promotes the formation of chlorophyll. Iron deficiency occurs mainly in soils containing lime, manganese, zinc, copper, and magnesium. Excessive application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can also cause ferritin deficiency. Iron deficiency affects the formation of chlorophyll, which makes the mesophyll yellow and forms a very fine mesh pattern. In severe cases, the branch shoots grow weak and the leaves become white and fall off, and the fruit taste is poor.
(8) Boron (B)
Boron participates in the operation and metabolism of carbohydrates, promotes the development of pollen and the elongation of pollen tubes, and contributes to the formation of chlorophyll, photosynthesis and the normal development of the transported tissues. Boron deficiency is also a common deficiency of red meat pomelo, which has a great influence on tree growth and flowering results. Acidic soil is easy to leaching boron, high temperature and drought, lime and more high nitrogen can easily lead to plant boron deficiency. Boron deficiency will cause the leaves to be small and brittle, leaf curl, veins burst, buds, fruit drop serious, small and deformed fruit, skin thick and hard, fruit flow phenomenon of plastic appearance, seed development is incomplete. Practice has proved that the appropriate amount of boron spray, red meat, grapefruit increased production. However, excessive application of boron fertilizer or boric acid injection, borax, will lead to excessive boron, causing plant poisoning, induced calcium deficiency, fruit acid content and vitamin C content decreased.
(9) Zinc (Zn)
Zinc is an integral part of some enzymes, closely related to the formation of tryptophan, and tryptophan is necessary for the synthesis of indole butyric acid. Therefore, zinc plays an important role in the growth and development of red meat grapefruit plants. Zinc deficiency is a common deficiency in citrus production around the world. The pH value of the soil is the main factor that affects the availability of zinc. The soil available for PH>6 has very little zinc, while the zinc in acidic sandy soil is easy to lose. Zinc deficiency will cause the growth of branches to be blocked, internodes shorter, shoots clustered, leaves narrow and small, the formation of yellow and green mosaic leaves, and even the entire leaf was pale yellow, fruit juice, acid and vitamin C content decreased; Zinc-deficient red pomelo grapefruit leaves contain lower calcium and higher potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen contents. Too much zinc induces iron deficiency and toxic reactions occur at the roots. The apex expands, and the root becomes thick and short, and growth stops.
(10) Manganese (Mn)
Manganese is involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll, which is an activator of certain enzymes, closely related to respiration, promotes the assimilation of carbon, and has a certain relationship with the reduction of nitric acid. In the absence of severe manganese, the leaves turned brown, causing defoliation, pale yellow skin, and soft fruits. Citrus orchard soil acidification can cause excessive manganese.
(11) Copper (Cu)
Copper is an integral part of many oxidases and is involved in the formation of chlorophyll. Abnormally copper-deficient leaf blades formed reticular pattern leaves, and young fruit peel, middle axis and young leaves appeared plastic flow phenomenon. Young fruit was light green, easy to drop fruit, thick skin and poor taste. The application of phosphoric acid hinders the absorption of copper. Too much copper inhibits the absorption of iron, enlarges fine roots, and stops growing. Applying lime and phosphate fertilizer can help reduce the toxicity of copper. Red meat honey grapefruit often spray Bordeaux mixture and other copper preparations pesticides, copper deficiency is rare; it is worth noting that excessive use of copper-containing pesticides prone to copper poisoning.
(12) Molybdenum (Mo)
Molybdenum is a component of nitrate reductase and is involved in nitrogen metabolism. The lack of molybdenum causes the accumulation of nitrate in the tree, which hinders the formation of amino acids that constitute the protein. Due to chlorophyll decomposition leaves appear oblong macular, commonly known as "dwarf macaque", leaf tip and leaf margin scorch on both sides, tender leaves in the volume.
(13) Chlorine (C1)
Chlorine is not an essential nutrient element of red-fruited pomelo, nor is it a metabolite. It exists in the form of water-soluble inorganic chlorine in plants. Chlorine is necessary during the oxygen evolution of photosynthesis, but red meat pomelo is sensitive to chloride and chlorine can accumulate in plants. The toxicity of chlorine on the leaves is mainly manifested by the yellowing of the leaf margin, showing a bronze to auburn.
Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds composed of amine and carboxylic acid functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid. With biological significance, amino acids are important in nutrition and are commonly used in Nutritional Supplements, fertilizers, and food technology. Industrial uses include the production of drugs, biodegradable plastics, and chiral catalysts.
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