The ruminants such as cattle and sheep need fine material and coarse material, and the coarse material is especially silage. Silage can also feed pigs, horses, donkeys, quails, rabbits, chickens, ducks, etc. It is a good method for storing green fresh feed. Although China has always promoted the technology, many farmers still do not have silage. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the silage production process. This article only talks about silage materials.
(a) Silage It uses lactic acid bacteria anaerobic fermentation method to long-term preservation of raw materials, prepared into a green and juicy succulent feed.
(II) Conditions for silage materials As the raw material for silage, the first is a non-toxic, harmless, odor-free, green plant that can be used for feeding. Second, it must contain certain sugars and water. The glucose consumed by silage fermentation is only 60. % conversion to lactic acid, which requires 1.7 g of glucose per gram of lactate formed, so insufficient sugar will affect the silage effect. The sugar content of silage materials should account for at least 1% - 1.5% of fresh weight, depending on sugar content The silage is divided into three categories: The first category is silaged, sugar-rich raw materials such as: corn, sweet sorghum, oats, grasses, wild plants, sweet potato soup, turnips, cabbage, beet leaves, carrots, Jerusalem artichoke, Sunflower and so on. The second category is not easy silage, low sugar content but high feed quality, high nutritional value, such as wolfberry, grass hibiscus, red bean grass, sand wangwang, clover, soybean, edamame, leeks, feeding millet, erect wormwood, potato stems and leaves Etc., they may be mixed with the first type of mixed or added sugar by-products. The third category is raw materials that cannot be siled separately, have low sugar content, have low nutrition, and have poor palatability. High-sugar raw materials need to be added in order to prepare medium-quality silage, such as pumpkin vine, watermelon vine, melon vine, tomato stem, leaf, leeches, quail. Grass and so on. The moisture content of silage raw materials also affects the propagation of lactic acid bacteria. The lack of moisture is not easy to compact, easy to mold; excessive moisture is easy to agglomeration, juice loss and sugar; general moisture content of 65% - 70% is appropriate.
(3) The source of silage raw materials for common silage is extremely widespread. Common raw materials include the following types.
1. Gramineous crops and pastures such as corn (Gold Queen, Wei Ke 156, Jing Duo No. 1, Xin Duo No. 1, Heiyu 46, Longmu 1 and No. 2, Tangshan Baimaya, Siebera, Jingza No. 6 Branch More varieties such as No. 1 and Zhongdan 206 can be planted with whole plant silage, ear silage, stalk stalk silage, corn kernel silage, Liriospermia, oats, winter rye, barley, wheat, rye, triticale and Grazing grasses Bromegrass, grass reeds, Dactylis, ryegrass, icegrass, tailgrass, feeding millet, old rye, large-leaved grass, yew, barley grass, foxgrass, timothy, sudan grass , Sorghum, Pennisetum, Grassy, â€‹â€‹Bermudagrass, Elymus, valerian, reedgrass, Feather grass, mane hair, bentgrass, aphrodisiac, seaweed, grass, Lavandula, Sanmu grass, Three barbed green grass, water cane grass, raisin grass, wild grass, Shiianmao grass, white sheep grass, light hole grass, four arm grass grass, brachypodium, sand brome, acid grass, brome, Leaflets, leafhoppers, gardenia, wild grass, hard-grass grass, pedicel, valerian, chervil, bamboo grass, Cleavage grass, lemongrass, thyme, gardenia, hellebore , Stomach, Fruit, Dragon's claw grass, Hair grass, crabgrass, red-tailed oysters, awns, goosehead lice, bald owl, goosegrass, wheatweed grass, buckwheat grass, teff, grass grass, horse grass , madder, sienna, madder, white Jian bar, fescue, different oats, yellow Mao, wild rye, barley, imperata, willow leaves.
2, legumes and pasture. Grasshoppers, grass rakes, clover, red clover, white clover, Lotus corniculatus, milk vetch, amorpha, sandstorm, arrow peas, sesame, soybeans, beans, peas, sesame, edamame Beans, kidney beans, kidney beans, black beans, broad beans, lupins, donkey hi beans, cauliflower, red bean grass, ground clover, crest flowers, stylus flowers, butterfly beans, tiancaojiao, peony beans, scutellaria, vine grass beans, Horseshoe Leggings, Caragana, Camellia, Hawk's Beans, Three-pointed Golden Grass, Sparse Fruits, Mountain Grasshoppers, Round Forage Grass, Drainage Grass, Pseudo-Dog, Flat Kidney Beans, Glycyrrhiza, Rice Pockets, Astragalus, Wood Blue, Cornstalk, Sweet Pea, Lespedeza davidiana, Dogwood Flowers, Mimosa, Bigleaf Jackfruit, Yellow Thorngrass, Steamed Bread, Wolfberry Thorn, Pueraria lobata, Mung Bean, Broom, Deer .
3. Vegetable melons by-products. Carrot wolfberry fruit, cabbage broiler, Ganlan leaf, vegetable flower leaf, rape leaf, bamboo leaf dish, root vegetable, eggplant, pumpkin, cabbage, small pot dish, slow food, melon quail, sweet potato vine, peanut pod, pumpkin vine, melon Man, watermelon vines, potato pods, tomato stems and leaves, pods, cotton leaves, corn stalks, etc.
4. Branch family. Rumex K?1 hybrid sorrel, buckwheat, pearl gum, leeches.
5. Root tuber feeds. Beet, sugar beet, kohlrabi, rutabaga, banana, potato, sweet potato, sweet potato, carrot, Jerusalem artichoke, etc.
6. Aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (water lotus, observing eye lotus), water peanut (Hypericum chinensis, revolutionary grass, arborvitae, water leeks), annatto (Azadirachta, Azolla, Shuiping), water hyacinth (Da Ye Lian, Water Lotus), Grass (water bamboo), water chestnut, white grass, water spinach and so on.
7. Weeds, wild vegetables. Valerian, leeks, gray vegetables, bitter leeks, mountain spinach, erect wormwood, woodgrass, Thousand-spike (Amaranth, West sticky, white centipede), grass (Patriotic, Leymus chinensis), cold Artemisia halodendron, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Echinochloa crusgalli, Chameleon chrysanthemum, Twisted head, Stevia rebaudiana, Hydrangea, Agaricus, Carex oleracea Red sand, articulation grass, mulberry, Potentilla, Golden Lame, Little yellow, green onion, wild wolfberry, Anemarrhena, Xing'an asparagus, oxtail, rhubarb, horsehair, ramie, snake, wolf Kidney trees, roughleaf flowers, fruit vines, falling petals of tea.
8. other. Agricultural and sideline products (cotton husks, soybean hulls, corn husks, cereals, bran, bamboo shoots, sunflower plates, distillers grains, brewers grains, vinegar grains, canned waste, beet pulp, starch slag, soy sauce scum, bean curd , powder residue, sugarcane bagasse, citrus residue, fruit residue, etc.), incompletely mature crops, hay, straw, wheat straw, etc. that have not been successfully prepared by rain. In short, the silage materials are very abundant, some need to be collected in batches (such as vegetables, weeds), staged batch silage, and some need to grow (such as corn, winter barley), so we must formulate production plans, reasonable arrangements for human and material resources. Yutian County
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