With the rapid development of agriculture and the gradual increase in the amount of chemical fertilizers, how to increase the utilization of chemical fertilizers has attracted people's attention. The utilization rate of fertilizers is affected by factors such as single application, fertilizer amount, and improper fertilization methods, resulting in a generally low utilization rate of fertilizers. This not only wastes fertilizer resources, increases production costs, but also causes serious environmental pollution and becomes a constraint factor for agricultural efficiency and farmers' income increase. In order to solve this problem, the technical points are described as follows:
First, determine the best amount of fertilizer is the key to improving fertilizer utilization
According to the law of fertilizer requirements of the crops and the ability of the soil to supply fertilizer, adhere to what the soil lacks what fertilizer to make up, lack the principle of how much fertilizer to make up, and determine the optimum amount of fertilizer for the crop.
Second, pay attention to technological innovation to develop new high-efficiency fertilizers to increase the utilization of chemical fertilizers. There are many types of nitrogen synergists, mainly urease inhibitors, which can be made into long-acting urea at a ratio of 1:50, urea formaldehyde and urea, and coated urea. It is also possible to directly use controlled-release fertilizers that meet national standards. These fertilizers are applied once as base fertilizers, and no fertilizer is applied afterwards. This not only saves the number of fertilizers, but also enables the soil in the early stage but not the middle of crop growth, and does not come off in the middle of the crop growth period. The effect of fertilizer was extended from 40 to 50 days to 100 to 120 days, and the nitrogen utilization rate increased from 35% to 40% to 60% to 75%. These new fertilizers lead the development of fertilizers to increase utilization. For the new high-efficiency fertilizers, the key issue is to let farmers understand and accept as soon as possible, and promote and apply them on a large scale, so as to make an early contribution to increase farmers' income and income. ?
Third, nitrogen, phosphorus, potash fertilizer application
The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements needed by crops are indispensable. According to the proportion of crops required for various nutrients, the best results can be achieved. The test proved that the utilization rate of single application of urea was 26.6%. If the ratio of urea and superphosphate was applied in a ratio of 1:0.5 to 0.6, the utilization rate of urea could be increased to 39.6%. The application effects of potash fertilizers are also becoming more and more obvious. Based on the application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, potassium chloride is applied at 5 to 10 kg per 667 square meters (1 mu), and the comprehensive utilization rate of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can be increased by 6%~ 10%. The requirement of crops for micronutrients is small, but it can also achieve good results in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Generally, it should be applied every other year according to crop needs. The amount of fertilizer should be 1.5-2 kg per 667 square meters.
Fourth, grasp the best fertilization time
Long-acting fertilizers and controlled-release fertilizers should be applied as base fertilizers at one time, and no additional fertilizers are needed. Other types of fertilizers should be based on the crop growth period and fertilizer requirements, the fertilizer used in the most sensitive period of the crop needs fertilizer, generally according to the reproductive characteristics of the crop, to grasp the former light, medium and heavy, the principle of supplement.
Fifth, choose the appropriate method of fertilization
Different soil texture, the fertilization method used is not the same, the general viscous soil, should be based on basal fertilizer, early application of top dressing method. Sandy soil should use "a small number of times", that is, "eat less and more meals," the topdressing method. Loamy soil should be based on basal fertilizer, combined with basal fertilizer and top dressing. The first is to educate farmers to improve fertilization techniques and methods. Change the surface to apply concentration to deeper application. The deep application of nitrogen fertilizer can increase the utilization rate by about 20% compared with the application. The general phosphate fertilizer application or application can increase the utilization rate by 10% compared to the application of common phosphate fertilizer and organic fertilizer. , Phosphate fertilizer efficiency can be increased by 30% -40%. The second is to guide farmers to purchase different fertilizers and adopt different fertilization methods according to different soil properties and crops. Such as: chlorine crops are not suitable for the application of chlorine-based compound fertilizer; sand soil and clay soil, and whether there is no watering conditions and other selected fertilizers and fertilization methods and methods are not the same.
Sixth, chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers are applied in combination to complement each other's advantages, to meet the demand of crops for nutrients, and to increase the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers.
Chemical fertilizers have a fast effect; organic fertilizers have a long lasting effect. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers can complement each other to meet the nutrient supply during the whole growth period of crops. It can also use the buffering and holding capacity of organic fertilizers to reduce the loss of fertilizer nutrients and thus increase the utilization of chemical fertilizers. When farmers fertilize, they should master the principle of adequate base fertilizer (usually dominated by organic fertilizer and diammonium), phase-appropriate top dressing (chemical fertilizer), appropriate amount and reasonable mixing.
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