The breeding series of questions and answers

1. When did estrus match?

In general, estrus mating occurs between February and March. The difference in latitude in different regions of the country is slightly ahead of schedule and delayed in the beginning of estrus. In late Heilongjiang Province, estrus was assigned in late January, Jilin and Liaoning began to heat in early February, and the peak period of estrus breeding was in late February (more than 80%).

2. What are the factors that affect the early and late estrus?

In addition to the geographical location mentioned above, there are nutritional conditions, maternal age, and heterosexual stimulation. Extensive breeding before the breeding period can not guarantee the normal development of their reproductive organs, estrus is generally late or even estrus. If the nutrient level is too high, the female tendon will be too fat, which can also affect normal estrus. Therefore, in the preparation of the breeding period, the feed must be guaranteed full price and the nutritional level need not be too high. Age is an important factor affecting the early and late estrus. The 1-year-old mother-eating estrus was the latest, and was concentrated in late February and early March. The 2-year-old and 3-year-old mother had earlier estrus and concentrated in mid-February; the mother-in-law estrus aged 4-5 years old was later than 2-3 years old. Focus on late February. In the breeding period, if the female parent in early estrus is in frequent contact with the public, it can also prompt her to enter the estrus period.

3. Is the mother's estrous cycle divided into several stages?

There is only one estrus cycle per year. The estrus cycle can be divided into three stages: early estrus, estrus, and late estrus.

(1) The estrus begins to show estrus until the time of mating. Generally lasts 7 to 12 days. During this period, her mother's performance was restless and her appetite decreased. There was a good feeling for the public money during the trial but it was rejected. The vulva gradually became swollen and eversion, with a harder acupressure, aching sensation, and increased secretions.

(2) The period during which the mother's cockroach can receive mating continuously during estrus, which is usually 1 to 4 days. During this period, the mothers are waiting for the public to climb and mating, while others actively cooperate with the public. The pubic hair is completely separated, and the vulva shows a high degree of swelling and eversion, showing an elliptical shape. The finger pressure is soft, the palate is painless, and the vulva has thick yellow mucus outflow.

(3) The period during which the mother's ancestors refuse to match the loss of estrus performance during the late estrus is generally 8 to 12 days. He is hostile to public relations and refuses to match. The vulva begins to shrink, the mucous membranes are wrinkled, and the secretions are reduced and become thick and sticky.

4. What is the significance of the changes in the cell image in the vaginal secretions of the mother?

There are mainly three kinds of cells in secretions: keratinized squamous epithelial cells, keratinized round epithelial cells, and white blood cells. Its relative proportion has obvious changes in the estrus cycle, which can be used as an auxiliary method for heat detection. In the early stage of estrus, the cell image is mainly composed of white blood cells, and other cells only account for 5%. From the first 3 days before the first mating, the proportion of keratinized squamous epithelial cells increased significantly, reaching 43%, and the proportion of white blood cells decreased to 50%. After the mother lice began to refuse, the proportion of keratinized squamous epithelial cells decreased rapidly, and the proportion of white blood cells began to rise again. The proportion of keratinized round epithelial cells did not change significantly during the estrus cycle. The examined vaginal secretions were coated with a thin layer on slides, and slides were placed under a microscope at 100 or 400 magnifications and counted.

5. How to identify the mate's estrus?

The evaluation of female estrous estrus is generally conducted in three aspects: behavior observation, external genital inspection, and trial placement. Candidates can perform vaginal discharge cell image examination. The above methods should be combined and judged comprehensively, but should be based on genital examinations. The breeding ground begins at the breeding period and the scorpion group should be escorted for 1 time to record the shape, color, and secretion of the genitals of each septum. Later, according to the progress of the heat of each cockroach, it will be checked. Generally available "+", such a female can be checked every 5 to 6 days before; estrus change clearly shows (the basic separation of hair, swelling of the vulva increased, the color began to deepen, there is a greater amount of pale yellow mucus), marked as "++", such a female can be checked every 2 to 3 days; if the female has a typical estrus performance (pubic hair completely separated, the vulva turns highly swollen, dark red, there is a lot of milky mucus), marked Is "+++". At this time, the mother-in-law has entered or will soon enter the estrus period, and she should immediately release the trial situation. If he accepts the mating, he can replace the official breeding of the male-female, and can also go directly to the matching-planning public funds. If you refuse to match, you need to check and put it right until you accept the mating.

6. How to arrange the time for breeding and breeding?

The breeding of earthworms is generally carried out during the day. Due to the cool weather in early and late nights, the public's energy is more abundant and sexual desire is strong; the female's estrous behavior is also more obvious, and it is easier to promote the transaction. The specific time is between 6:30 and 10:00 in the morning from 6 to 8 in the morning and from 4.30 to 5.30 in the afternoon. The warming of the late breeding period can only be done in the morning.

7. What should I do if I have a normal estrus but do not raise or stand up when I mate?

There are very few female crickets and the estrus performance is normal, but the male crickets do not tilt their tails or lie down when they climb over the mating. Such females need artificial assistance. For those who do not, the tail can be fixed on the back with a thin string; if the person is lying down, it can be artificially assisted to stand on the back of the hind limb, but a good domesticated male must be selected for breeding.

8. Is it appropriate for females to mate during estrus?

Practice has shown that the number of litters of females that have been reconstituted once is significantly lower than that of females that have been reconstituted twice, and there is no significant difference in the number of litters of maternal abortions that are reconstituted more than two times. Therefore, the compounding of the mother must be guaranteed twice, but it need not be more than 3 times.

9. Is it possible to increase the number of litters by using multiple bus allocation methods?

In the case of normal semen quality, multiple bus combinations do not increase the number of fetuses born in the mother's cockroach. That is to say, if the semen quality of the public eel is good, it is better to use the same public eaves for compounding after the completion of the initial semen, and there is no need to replace the euphorbia. However, if the quality of the semen that has been inspected after the initial distribution is poor, the public must be replaced for mating. In addition, if the female niece refuses to mate with the male mate that first mated, it also needs to replace the public prince.

10. Is there a mate preference for mating?

There is a certain amount of spouse sex. Some male prostitutes are often reluctant to mate with the same female, and prefer to mate with untouched females. Some mother-in-laws also have the above performance. Therefore, when you put it right, you must promptly separate and replace the spouse if you bite or fight each other.

11. Is there a morning or evening for public money?

The so-called “opening” refers to the first completion of mating by males during the breeding period. The "opening time" of public funds is mainly influenced by age. Public males over the age of two are generally “opening” earlier, while “opening” males at the age of 1 are slightly later.

12. How to train young cubs to participate in breeding?

It is more difficult for young males to mate for the first time, but once they succeed, they can successfully mate with other females. In order to train young males and females to breed, we must select mates that have good estrus and gentle temperament to mate with them. Otherwise, the mother's refusal and even the attack will lead to sexual inhibition or sexual fear, and later it will be difficult to play a role in breeding.

13. Must the public pay for supplementation during the breeding period?

Male cubs consume a lot of energy during the breeding period, and they need to discharge a large amount of semen. Their appetite is also poor. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement it. Supplementary feed should pay attention to the quality of less, generally use fresh fish and cooked eggs, etc., will be minced and mixed, supplemented at noon daily. However, it is not necessary to provide supplements to public funds who are not “opened” or who are not capable of breeding.

14. How to make reasonable use of public money during the breeding period?

General male raccoon can mate 5 to 12 times in one breeding period and up to 20 times in high level. The public money can be played for 1 or 2 times a day (usually 1 time). After 4 to 5 days of continuous mating, you must rest for 1 to 2 days before you can put it back in order to restore strength and increase sexual desire. At the end of mating, most male libidos are waning and their temperaments are rough, and some even bite their mothers. Therefore, those male prostitutes whose sexual desire is prosperous should be selected to complete the final breeding work.

15. How to check the semen quality?

Male cockroaches usually undergo semen quality checks after mating, especially after the first two matings. The specific method is to use a glass rod or straw to insert the 8 to 10 cm of the vagina just finished with the mother's cockroach. Draw or take a little semen, drop a drop on a clean glass slide, and observe under a microscope of 100 or 400 times. First determine the presence or absence of sperm, then observe sperm morphology, vigor, and density. The number of spermatozoa is larger and the movement is active, and those without abnormalities are normal. If there is no sperm or very few sperm and the activity is very weak, it is necessary to change the allocation of public money. After repeated inspections, the male deer did not have sperm or poor semen quality and should stop using it.

16. What is the performance of the mother's pregnancy after pregnancy?

Mothers become tame and calm after pregnancy and are reluctant to move. When it is sunny and warm, I like to crawl on the cage. Appetite and food intake also increased significantly, and the coat was smooth and shiny. By the time of 25 to 30 days of pregnancy, the size of the nipple in the abdomen can be felt, and the female nipple that is not fitted is dry and hard. Pregnancy can be seen 40 days after the mother's abdomen drooping, back sag, action becomes slow. About 10 days before the onset of labor, begin to plucking a nest.

17. Does the length of the mother's gestation affect the number of births?

The maternal gestation period from 1 to 4 births was 59.51, 59.52.59.60 and 59.72 days, respectively. The range of change between individuals is 57 to 85 days. According to site statistics, the length of gestation does not have a significant effect on the number of births.

18. What preparations should be made before the mother-in-law comes into production?

10 days before maternal birth, the clean-up, disinfection, and insulation of the mat should be completed. The chamber disinfection can be scrubbed with 2% hot alkaline water, and can also be flame sterilized with a torch. Grass mats can be primed with rough straw and then covered with enough mountain grass or soft weeds. In addition to the insulation effect of bedding, it also helps to hold and suck the milk, and should be carefully put away. The bedding should be flowed before the birth, otherwise the temporary supply will be disturbed.

19. What are the performances of mother-in-law before childbirth?

Most of the mother-in-law eat or eat 1 to 2 tons before eating. The performance was restless and he walked back and forth between the small room and the cage. He often heard snores and snoring because of prenatal abdominal pain and issued bursts of cries.

20. How long does the baby have to live? How many litters can be produced in each nest?

貉 产 产 产 貉 在 在 在 在 貉 貉 在. Delivery time is about 4 to 8 hours, and individual ones have 1 to 3 days. Aberdeen takes out 1 bird every 10-15 minutes. Immediately after delivery, the mother gnats the umbilical cord, eats the placenta and the placenta, and pecks the body, until it is all safe to breastfeed.

The number of litter births varies greatly among individuals, with one low and 19 high, with an average of 7 to 8. There are significant differences in the number of births of different parity mothers. Statistics show that the number of births of the second, third, and fourth parity mothers is higher, averaging 7.45, 7.72, and 7.66 respectively. The number of fifth births was lower, averaging 6.84 and 6.87, respectively.

21. How to postpartum check?

The first inspection of the mother's cockroach is performed 12 to 24 hours after childbirth. The maternal sex is relatively strong, and post-partum generally keeps in the nest. It is difficult to separate it from Aberdeen without coercion. During the inspection, gently open the back cover. The hand wearing a cotton glove slowly extends into the nest box. The mother occupies the glove and holds the glove. The examiner squeezes the head of the female cub on the side wall of the box with the other hand. Quickly grab the neck, hands fasten and pull the mother out of the box. The other person examined the development status, the number of babies, the sex, the insulation of the nest, and the lactation of the mother's beak. After the inspection, gently place the female casket and close the lid. Generally do not force the mother to force out of the box inspection. Because the mother-in-law is extremely frightened and disturbed during the drive, it will inevitably cause the mother-in-law to trample Tsai and cause losses. In addition, the mother-in-law who was banished will frantically make noises because of the eagerness of nurses. If the youngsters seldom bark, and when they sound loud and short, they do not need to check; if the barks are kept and the calls become weaker and weaker, they need to be checked in time to find out the reasons and take measures.

22. What is the performance of mother-child dystocia? What is the reason? How to save?

(1) The performance of dystocia has reached the expected date of birth or exceeded the expected date of birth, (2) the number of meals refused, (3) the performance is not (4) security, (5) looks back at the crotch or smells the vulva, (6) does not (7) ) Severed cries of pain. There are also performances that do not (8) revive, (9) do not climb (10).

(11) Cause of dystocia Firstly, uterine contraction is weak, (12) diarrhea does not (13) produce fetus; second, birth canal stenosis; third, fetus is too large; fourth, stillbirth or deformity.

(14) Rescue measures for dystocia should first be performed using oxytocin in a timely manner, (15) premature use, (16) unopened cervix, (17) intense uterine contractions, (18) prone to rupture of the uterus; use too late (19) The placenta has been ruptured, (20) the amniotic fluid flows out, and (21) also easily causes the fetus to die. The country, (22) Once it is determined that it is difficult to produce, (23) must be promptly injected oxytocin. Usually the first injection of 0.2 ~ 0.4 ml, if more than half an hour to 1 hour without production, then injection of 0.6 ~ 0.8 ml. If it is not produced within 1 hour, should be artificial birth aid. Hand and fistula vulva after disinfection, fingers ( 24) Stretch into the vagina to straighten out the fetus and pull out the baby with the mother. If the midwifery has no effect, cesarean section surgery is performed immediately.

23. How to do cesarean section surgery?

Place your mother's back on Baoding, use a rope to tie your beak or put on a mouth cover made of iron mesh to prevent injury. Then determine the surgical position. It is usually on the right side of the lower 2/5 abdominal midline of the abdomen. After shave the shaved surgical site, iodine was disinfected, and then 6-8 branches of procaine hydrochloride were injected subcutaneously into the surrounding area for local anesthesia. The length of the incision is appropriate to about 10 cm. After the skin is cut, it is fixed on both sides with a hemostatic forceps. After exposing the peritoneum, the incision is made. After the uterus is found, the mouth of the blood vessel is cut 8 to 10 cm long. Can remove the fetus. Every time a fetus is removed, the fetus is stripped, the mucus in the mouth and nose is squeezed, the amniotic fluid on the fetus is wiped off, the umbilical cord is cut, placed in a preheated (20-25 degrees) incubator, and after the fetus is completely removed, In the abdominal cavity and in the uterus, 400,000 to 800,000 units of penicillin powder are thrown in, and the uterus, peritoneum, and skin are sutured, and the dam is returned to the cage for rest.

24. Why does the mother-in-law have to deal with it? How to prevent it?

Mother-litters are one of the important causes of Aberdeen loss during the farrowing period. According to statistics, about 40% of the mother-in-fants appear to be in a litter during the lactation period. The main reason is that the mother is not quiet. The environment makes the mother-in-law lose her sense of security and protects the nature of the child, prompting the mother-in-law to transfer him to a safe place. As a result, female cubs have walked back and forth in cages.

They can be confined to a small room, and some mothers will automatically give up the oysters, and some mothers will be ineffective. It has been reported that the use of chlorpromazine hydrochloride for the treatment of maternal calf abuse has a certain effect. The method was to find that the mother lice were given oral or intramuscular injection of chlorpromazine hydrochloride 50 mg immediately. At the same time, the youngsters will be raised in the warm room for a short period of time, so that their mothers can rest in their cages. After 4 to 6 hours, the mother's beak gradually stabilized. At this point, the baby is sent back to her nest.

In order to prevent mother-in-law, 20-day postpartum should try to keep the market quiet and reduce human interference.

25. Can the mother-in-law of Taipa be preserved?

Those who ate for food and oysters in the previous year may not necessarily happen again. Those who did not eat oysters before may not necessarily do so. Therefore, in addition to the formation of a consistent and severe evil should be given out, generally continue to keep breeding.

26. Can the lack of grass in the nest after birth be added?

Postpartum man-made interference in the mother-in-law can easily lead to the phenomenon of ape and abandonment. Therefore, the prenatal request will be filled with grass and will not be added after birth. However, if the baby is born early, the weather is cold, and there is a lack of grass in the nest, you will need to add grass in the first postpartum inspection. The method is: First take out the Tsai and padded the grass at the bottom of the box. The four corners of the box should be pressed tightly to prevent the Aberdeen from drilling into the grass or the corner of the box and being crushed by the mother's beak, or starving to death due to not eating milk.

27. How to carry out artificial feeding and artificial feeding?

Due to excessive calving, lack of lactation, cesarean section, or paralysis, the mother-family need to be partially or fully bred to other mother-in-law or artificial feeding. The foster family should look for mothers with similar maternity period (not less than 3 days before and after), fewer litter size (less than 8), good temperament, and strong motherhood. The method is to wipe the body of the deceased with the hair of the foster mother-in-law or the grass in the box, so that the smell of the deceased mother-in-law can be found on the baby's body and then placed on the cage net to allow the female to enter.

28. What should I do if my mother has no milk or lack of milk?

Immediate treatment with drugs and improved feeding management are needed. Immediately after birth, the mother lice can be injected with oxytocin twice a day, one at a time. After a few days of delivery, the females can be fed milk tablets 3 times a day, 4 tablets at a time. In addition, milk, milk powder, trotter soup or broth are added to the feed.

29. When did you start eating?

Aberdeen can grow teeth from 15 to 20 days of age, and can feed on fine-grained paste. At this point, the feed can be manually placed on the beak's mouth to train its intake. Pay attention to feed palatability and fine processing to facilitate feed intake and digestion and absorption. After being able to feed, Tsai gradually changed from eating milk to eating feed. After 45 days of age, their ability to eat and digest feed is basically sufficient, and breast milk is not necessary.

30. When do you want to break up?

After 45 days of age, weaned litters can be divided according to their growth conditions and the lactating ability of their mothers. If the same litter size is well developed and evenly sized, it can be split once. If the growth of the litter is uneven, first develop a strong Tsai, and the weak development allows the female to raise for a period of time and divide the nest. If the mother's lactation ability is poor and the dysentery is not well developed, the young herd should be distributed to other nurses who have been weaned and have a stronger lactating capacity.

31. What problems should be noticed before starting a nesting activity in a beheaded, weaning nest?

When he was naughty and active, he was often curious to extend his claws into the cage when he was on the cage. The phenomenon of being bitten by a caged cockroach occurred from time to time. Therefore, a partition must be inserted between adjacent cages.

After eating, the feed intake increases, and large and rectangular troughs should be replaced to facilitate feeding. The troughs should be heavy or can be fixed on the cage net to prevent them from being caught in the competition. turn.

Aberdeen usually does not have the habit of definitive defecation. It often places excreta in tanks or troughs. At this time, it is a hot summer period. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly clean the nests and brush troughs to prevent transmission. And infectious diseases.

32. What are the characteristics of larval growth and development? What is the weight of each dayling?

The cubs were born with a body weight of about 120 grams, a body length of 8-12 centimeters, and a black short-brained fetus. Aberdeen usually grows teeth 15-20 days after birth, blinks 9-13 days, eats 20-25 days, walks out of the chamber for 25-30 days, and breaks the litter in 45-60 days. At about 1 month of age, the fetuses are returned and they are 6 to 7 months old and grow to size. Measuring the body weight of each day of age is an important basis for judging whether the growth and development of the young are normal.

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