The digestive characteristics of velvet deer

(i) Deer's digestive behavior

1 . Feeding and drinking deer feed fast, this habit is formed in the wild, and this characteristic is still maintained under domestic conditions. Deer used to eat and drink only 10% of the time of day.

2 . In contrast, the deer generally had a prolonged or standing position when they had been fed for 1.0 to 1.5 hours after eating. The deer's reflexive time is longer and generally takes 6 to 7 hours a day. In the wild anti-fish animals, the structure of the deer animals is not as good as that of cows, and the number of antidepressants is less. Due to the different types of feed and the moisture content of the feed, the number of times and times of retribution are different. The anti-fish time of grazing cattle is 4 to 9 hours a day. The deer's counter-time is not much different from that of cattle. Aberdeen deer generally appears to be in reversal about 3 weeks after birth.

3 . Heating deer can have 10 to 20 heating operations an average of 1 hour.

4 . Defecation deer faeces are oval or nearly round and brownish green. Defecation 8 to 10 times a day, male deer each time the amount of feces 200 to 275 grams, doe defecation 134 to 255 grams each time.

(B) digestion of deer stomach

1 . The stomach volume of newborn calves digested with patchopathic stomach is very small, accounting for only 23% of all 4 stomach volumes. At 2 weeks of age, it only accounts for 31% (74% of adult deer). There are no microorganisms in the rumen, followed by fodder, water, or deer. The deer reciprocates and the microorganisms enter the rumen. After being born, Aberdeen will be able to eat some young grass and begin to ruminate in 3-4 days, indicating that some microorganisms are already present in the rumen.

(l) Hydrogen ion concentration (PH value) in the rumen of ruminants. According to laboratory tests, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the rumen of the deer bred in general is 25125.0 to 251.2 nanomoles/liter (pHS. 6-6. 6). ) Compared with other livestock, the acidity is slightly higher.

(2) The contents of water, dry matter, and lactic acid in the rumen contents were determined according to Ji Shangren et al. (1987). The water content in the rumen was 80.4 % to 94.2 %, and the dry matter content was 5.2 % to 20 . 13 %. . The lactate content was 0.10 to 0.88 milliliters. The content of moisture and dry matter in the rumen content has a great relationship with feed and drinking water. In contrast, when animal lactic acid levels are generally low, high concentrations of lactic acid can occur when large amounts of silage corn, digestible grains, or feeds with high sugar content, such as sugar beets, are eaten.

(3) Volatile fatty acid content in the rumen contents of sika deer According to Ji Shangren et al. (1987), the contents of 20 rumen rumen contents were measured. The volatile fatty acid content was 114.6 mmol F, of which 64.8% was acetic acid. Propionic acid was 18%, butyric acid was 13.4%, isovaleric acid was 1.3%, and pentanoic acid was 2.5%. The content of volatile fatty acids in the ruminal contents of animals and the proportion of various volatile fatty acids vary greatly depending on the type of feed and physiological conditions of animals. When feeding hay, volatile fatty acids can be as low as 100 millimolar plants, and when feeding on tender grasses or feeds rich in starch, they can be as high as 200 millimoles/liter.

2 . The reticulum and valve stomach digestive function of deer's reticulum and petal stomach is also the same as other anti-animals. The amount of microbes in the reticulum is very high, and the number of microbes after feeding is obviously increased. Therefore, the digestive function of the reticulum should not be ignored. There is a "filter" in the stomach and the contents are relatively dry, but there are still a few microorganisms. 3 . Abomasum Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Gastrointestine

There are more rennet enzymes in the deer stomach, and pepsin in the stomach fluid is less than adults and deer. The function of secreting hydrochloric acid in the abomasum gradually improves with age. The free hydrochloric acid and combined hydrochloric acid content of the neonate deer gastric juice are both low. Therefore, the function of the gastric barrier is weak, and if it is improperly managed, various gastrointestinal diseases are prone to occur.

(C) The speed of digestion

The time that the feed stays in the digestive tract and the speed through the rumen, reticulum, and hindgut have a great relationship with the season. The average duration of stay in October is a minimum of 21.4 hours, with an average of more than 48 hours in February and June. The highest velocity coefficient of rumen and reticulum appeared in December, and the lowest speed was in February. The highest speed coefficient of the hindgut appeared in October.

The effect of thyroxine on digestibility is well known. In autumn, the growth rate slows down and the metabolic rate decreases. Animals often consume more fiber feed. Under these conditions, low levels of thyroxine, lower metabolic rate, and longer persistence are compatible with increasing cellulose digestibility. A cold environment can reduce the duration of digestion of the digestate in the rumen, and increase the availability of more soluble nutrients in the large intestine, which may be advantageous from the standpoint of increasing the vitality of the ruminal contents. Dry matter intake was positively correlated with the disappearance rate of indigestible particles in the rumen of the deer; the higher the feed digestibility, the longer the average residence time in the rumen and total digestive tract.

(d) Deer digestibility

In addition, factors such as the composition of the diet and the feeding system also have an impact on the digestion of feed. Irrational diet composition will reduce the digestibility. The amount of protein in feed is low, and the feed digestibility is significantly reduced. When the protein is high, the feed digestibility can be increased. This is because when there are enough proteins in the feed, the protein-based bacteria and ciliates in the rumen grow in large numbers, which is conducive to the decomposition of crude fiber, thereby increasing the digestibility of crude fiber.

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