Tomato virus disease is one of the major diseases of tomato, which can cause significant loss of yield.
Symptoms are commonly seen in mosaics, fern leaves, and strips.
Mosaic pattern appeared bright veins or yellow-green mottled leaves, leaf shrinkage, plant growth is slow, sick when heavy flower, fruit drop.
The brown spots appear on the leaves, stems and fruits of the streak type, and the condition develops, and mottled irregular dark brown spots appear on the leaves. The stalks showed stripe-like spots and the diseased part was slightly sunken. The lesions vary in size, most of them are small, light brown to dark brown, and the epidermis is uneven, like a hedgehog's head. The discoloration of streak virus-type disease is limited to the epidermis but not into the stem and into the fruit.
The fern leaf-type plants are obviously dwarfed, and the pre-buds and young leaves are slender and clustered and spirally rolled down. All or part of the plant leaves become fern leaves from top to bottom. The veins of the leaves turn purple, the middle and lower leaves roll up, and when the disease is heavy, the lower leaves roll into a tube. Malformed fruit, necropsy fruit, pale brown flesh.
There are more than 20 kinds of pathogens that cause viral diseases. Most of winter and spring to late May before the majority of TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), accounting for 52% to 57%, causing mosaic symptoms. It can also be co-infected with potato virus to produce streaky symptoms. During the summer, tomato virus disease occurred in open field and autumn shed, and CMV (Cucumber mosaic virus) was the main source of poisoning, resulting in fern leaf symptoms. Complex infection also showed streaky symptoms. Tobacco mosaic virus, toxic temperature 90 ~ 90 Â°C, 10 minutes. CMV has a toxic temperature of 60-70Â°C for 10 minutes, a dilution limit of 10,000 times, and a TMV of 1 million times.
?? The characteristics of the disease? Tobacco mosaic virus overwintering in the sick and a variety of crops, seeds also become a primary source of infection. Frictional contact infection. Sick tobacco is also a primary source of infestation. Cucumber mosaic virus overwinters perennial perennial plants or weeds, and migratory locusts pass through the virus, leading to viral disease. High temperature and drought, soil compaction, lack of fertilizer, and lack of water all contribute to the occurrence of viral diseases.
Prevention and control methods To prevent and control tomato virus disease, and actively adopt comprehensive prevention measures based on agriculture
1, agricultural control. Selection of disease resistant varieties such as Jiafen No.15, Maofen 802, Lutuo No.5, Zhongshou No.4, No.5, No.6, etc.; Seed soaked in fresh water for 3~4 hours, soaked and soaked with 10% trisodium phosphate 20 Minutes, sowing seeds after washing; autumn tomato care shade, water pouring, pouring night water to reduce the temperature in order to control the virus Bo? To control maggots and other viral transmission media, you can use the silver gray film to avoid snoring, but also Timely spraying control, eliminate before poisoning.
2. Carry out crop rotations to avoid intercropping and continuous cropping to reduce or prevent the transmission of poisonous soil and residues of tomato virus disease and reduce the occurrence of viral diseases; nursery sites and planting sheds should completely remove toxic weeds and reduce viruses. The source of the disease is poisonous; the application of formula fertilization is promoted, and the spraying of AI over 6000 times liquid, or phytosaminoglycan 7500 times, enhances the host disease resistance.
3, fitness training and disease prevention measures: First, the appropriate sowing, nurturing strong seedlings, seedlings of appropriate age, when planting requires buds, but not aging; the second is timely early planting, to promote strong seedlings early hair, the use of plastic shed cultivation , Avoid the onset of the field; Third, early cultivating grass, timely soil, promote hair roots, late snoring, early harvest, planting seedlings spraying 1/10000 increase production spirit, can increase the resistance to mosaic virus . The first ear-sprocket should be watered in time, and the watering of the fruit should pay attention to the combination of manure and chemical fertilizer, and promote fruit-strengthening, especially in high-temperature and dry seasons, and water should be diligently used to improve the microclimate in the field.
4. Spraying control at the early stage of disease; spraying protection is started at the initial stage of disease (5-6 leaf stage), and the agent is 3.85% virus, WP500 times liquid is sprayed on the leaf surface, and the spray is sprayed once every 7 days. Secondly, the efficacy of prevention and treatment of tomato virus disease can reach 75-80%. It can also use 1.5% of phytopathogenic spirit 800 times solution, or 20% of virus A500 times solution spray. The method of use is the same as above. The control effect of virus disease can reach 70. % or so, less than the control effect of virus will be grams; also can be used 5% bacteria poison water agent 400 times, or potassium permanganate 1000 times, in addition to spraying 50-100ppm and 1% superphosphate to do extra-root fertilizer , can improve disease resistance.
5. Early stage flood control and mealy alfalfa: As soon as possible, imidacloprid and other sprays are used to control weeds, infected aphids and whiteflies on surrounding vegetables, and to prevent the propagation of insects such as aphids and mealybugs, especially in hot and dry years. It is necessary to pay attention to the timely control of aphids and whiteflies, which can effectively prevent TMV infection and reduce the occurrence of tomato virus disease.
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